PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical benefit of nivolumab with or without ipilimumab in combination with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in patients with refractory metastatic pancreatic cancer (mPC).
METHODS: Between November 2016 and December 2019, patients with refractory mPC were randomly assigned 1:1 to SBRT of 15 Gy with nivolumab or nivolumab/ipilimumab stratified by performance status (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02866383). The primary end point was the clinical benefit rate (CBR), defined as the percentage of patients with complete or partial response (PR) or stable disease, according to RECIST 1.1. Simon's 2-stage phase II optimal design was used independently for both arms, with CBR determining expansion to the second stage. Secondary end points included safety, response rate, duration of response, progression-free survival, and overall survival. Exploratory analyses included biomarkers related to the benefits.
RESULTS: Eighty-four patients (41 SBRT/nivolumab and 43 SBRT/nivolumab/ipilimumab) received at least one dose of study treatment. CBR was 17.1% (8.0 to 30.6) for patients receiving SBRT/nivolumab and 37.2% (24.0 to 52.1) for SBRT/nivolumab/ipilimumab. PR was observed in one patient receiving SBRT/nivolumab and lasted for 4.6 months. Six patients receiving SBRT/nivolumab/ipilimumab achieved a PR with a median duration of response of 5.4 months (4.2 to not reached). Grade 3 or higher treatment-related adverse events occurred in 10 (24.4%) and 13 (30.2%) patients in the SBRT/nivolumab and SBRT/nivolumab/ipilimumab groups, respectively. Programmed cell death ligand-1 expression by tumor proportion score or combined positivity score of ≥ 1% was not associated with clinical benefits. On-treatment decreased serum interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and C-reactive protein levels were associated with better overall survival.
CONCLUSION: Clinically meaningful antitumor activity and favorable safety profiles were demonstrated after treatment with SBRT/nivolumab/ipilimumab in patients with refractory mPC. However, the contribution from SBRT is unknown. Further studies are warranted.
|Tidsskrift||Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology|
|Status||Udgivet - 20 sep. 2022|