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Proposal for the use of echocardiography in bloodstream infections due to different streptococcal species

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@article{e27aac9022d74506a2de1ad7c4ad271b,
title = "Proposal for the use of echocardiography in bloodstream infections due to different streptococcal species",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis (IE) is diagnosed in 7-8% of streptococcal bloodstream infections (BSIs), yet it is unclear when to perform transthoracic (TTE) and transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) according to different streptococcal species. The aim of this sub-study was to propose a flowchart for the use of echocardiography in streptococcal BSIs.METHODS: In a population-based setup, we investigated all patients admitted with streptococcal BSIs and crosslinked data with nationwide registries to identify comorbidities and concomitant hospitalization with IE. Streptococcal species were divided in four groups based on the crude risk of being diagnosed with IE (low-risk < 3%, moderate-risk 3-10%, high-risk 10-30% and very high-risk > 30%). Based on number of positive blood culture (BC) bottles and IE risk factors (prosthetic valve, previous IE, native valve disease, and cardiac device), we further stratified cases according to probability of concomitant IE diagnosis to create a flowchart suggesting TTE plus TOE (IE > 10%), TTE (IE 3-10%), or {"}wait & see{"} (IE < 3%).RESULTS: We included 6393 cases with streptococcal BSIs (mean age 68.1 years [SD 16.2], 52.8% men). BSIs with low-risk streptococci (S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, S. intermedius) are not initially recommended echocardiography, unless they have ≥3 positive BC bottles and an IE risk factor. Moderate-risk streptococci (S. agalactiae, S. anginosus, S. constellatus, S. dysgalactiae, S. salivarius, S. thermophilus) are guided to {"}wait & see{"} strategy if they neither have a risk factor nor ≥3 positive BC bottles, while a TTE is recommended if they have either ≥3 positive BC bottles or a risk factor. Further, a TTE and TOE are recommended if they present with both. High-risk streptococci (S. mitis/oralis, S. parasanguinis, G. adiacens) are directed to a TTE if they neither have a risk factor nor ≥3 positive BC bottles, but to TTE and TOE if they have either ≥3 positive BC bottles or a risk factor. Very high-risk streptococci (S. gordonii, S. gallolyticus, S. mutans, S. sanguinis) are guided directly to TTE and TOE due to a high baseline IE prevalence.CONCLUSION: In addition to the clinical picture, this flowchart based on streptococcal species, number of positive blood culture bottles, and risk factors, can help guide the use of echocardiography in streptococcal bloodstream infections. Since echocardiography results are not available the findings should be confirmed prospectively with the use of systematic echocardiography.",
keywords = "Bloodstream infection, Echocardiography, Infective endocarditis, Streptococcal species",
author = "Sandra Chamat-Hedemand and Bruun, {Niels Eske} and Lauge {\O}stergaard and Magnus Arpi and Emil Fosb{\o}l and Jonas Boel and Oestergaard, {Louise Bruun} and Lauridsen, {Trine K} and Gunnar Gislason and Christian Torp-Pedersen and Anders Dahl",
note = "{\textcopyright} 2021. The Author(s).",
year = "2021",
month = jul,
day = "16",
doi = "10.1186/s12879-021-06391-2",
language = "English",
volume = "21",
pages = "689",
journal = "BMC Infectious Diseases",
issn = "1471-2334",
publisher = "BioMed Central Ltd",
number = "1",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Proposal for the use of echocardiography in bloodstream infections due to different streptococcal species

AU - Chamat-Hedemand, Sandra

AU - Bruun, Niels Eske

AU - Østergaard, Lauge

AU - Arpi, Magnus

AU - Fosbøl, Emil

AU - Boel, Jonas

AU - Oestergaard, Louise Bruun

AU - Lauridsen, Trine K

AU - Gislason, Gunnar

AU - Torp-Pedersen, Christian

AU - Dahl, Anders

N1 - © 2021. The Author(s).

PY - 2021/7/16

Y1 - 2021/7/16

N2 - BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis (IE) is diagnosed in 7-8% of streptococcal bloodstream infections (BSIs), yet it is unclear when to perform transthoracic (TTE) and transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) according to different streptococcal species. The aim of this sub-study was to propose a flowchart for the use of echocardiography in streptococcal BSIs.METHODS: In a population-based setup, we investigated all patients admitted with streptococcal BSIs and crosslinked data with nationwide registries to identify comorbidities and concomitant hospitalization with IE. Streptococcal species were divided in four groups based on the crude risk of being diagnosed with IE (low-risk < 3%, moderate-risk 3-10%, high-risk 10-30% and very high-risk > 30%). Based on number of positive blood culture (BC) bottles and IE risk factors (prosthetic valve, previous IE, native valve disease, and cardiac device), we further stratified cases according to probability of concomitant IE diagnosis to create a flowchart suggesting TTE plus TOE (IE > 10%), TTE (IE 3-10%), or "wait & see" (IE < 3%).RESULTS: We included 6393 cases with streptococcal BSIs (mean age 68.1 years [SD 16.2], 52.8% men). BSIs with low-risk streptococci (S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, S. intermedius) are not initially recommended echocardiography, unless they have ≥3 positive BC bottles and an IE risk factor. Moderate-risk streptococci (S. agalactiae, S. anginosus, S. constellatus, S. dysgalactiae, S. salivarius, S. thermophilus) are guided to "wait & see" strategy if they neither have a risk factor nor ≥3 positive BC bottles, while a TTE is recommended if they have either ≥3 positive BC bottles or a risk factor. Further, a TTE and TOE are recommended if they present with both. High-risk streptococci (S. mitis/oralis, S. parasanguinis, G. adiacens) are directed to a TTE if they neither have a risk factor nor ≥3 positive BC bottles, but to TTE and TOE if they have either ≥3 positive BC bottles or a risk factor. Very high-risk streptococci (S. gordonii, S. gallolyticus, S. mutans, S. sanguinis) are guided directly to TTE and TOE due to a high baseline IE prevalence.CONCLUSION: In addition to the clinical picture, this flowchart based on streptococcal species, number of positive blood culture bottles, and risk factors, can help guide the use of echocardiography in streptococcal bloodstream infections. Since echocardiography results are not available the findings should be confirmed prospectively with the use of systematic echocardiography.

AB - BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis (IE) is diagnosed in 7-8% of streptococcal bloodstream infections (BSIs), yet it is unclear when to perform transthoracic (TTE) and transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) according to different streptococcal species. The aim of this sub-study was to propose a flowchart for the use of echocardiography in streptococcal BSIs.METHODS: In a population-based setup, we investigated all patients admitted with streptococcal BSIs and crosslinked data with nationwide registries to identify comorbidities and concomitant hospitalization with IE. Streptococcal species were divided in four groups based on the crude risk of being diagnosed with IE (low-risk < 3%, moderate-risk 3-10%, high-risk 10-30% and very high-risk > 30%). Based on number of positive blood culture (BC) bottles and IE risk factors (prosthetic valve, previous IE, native valve disease, and cardiac device), we further stratified cases according to probability of concomitant IE diagnosis to create a flowchart suggesting TTE plus TOE (IE > 10%), TTE (IE 3-10%), or "wait & see" (IE < 3%).RESULTS: We included 6393 cases with streptococcal BSIs (mean age 68.1 years [SD 16.2], 52.8% men). BSIs with low-risk streptococci (S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, S. intermedius) are not initially recommended echocardiography, unless they have ≥3 positive BC bottles and an IE risk factor. Moderate-risk streptococci (S. agalactiae, S. anginosus, S. constellatus, S. dysgalactiae, S. salivarius, S. thermophilus) are guided to "wait & see" strategy if they neither have a risk factor nor ≥3 positive BC bottles, while a TTE is recommended if they have either ≥3 positive BC bottles or a risk factor. Further, a TTE and TOE are recommended if they present with both. High-risk streptococci (S. mitis/oralis, S. parasanguinis, G. adiacens) are directed to a TTE if they neither have a risk factor nor ≥3 positive BC bottles, but to TTE and TOE if they have either ≥3 positive BC bottles or a risk factor. Very high-risk streptococci (S. gordonii, S. gallolyticus, S. mutans, S. sanguinis) are guided directly to TTE and TOE due to a high baseline IE prevalence.CONCLUSION: In addition to the clinical picture, this flowchart based on streptococcal species, number of positive blood culture bottles, and risk factors, can help guide the use of echocardiography in streptococcal bloodstream infections. Since echocardiography results are not available the findings should be confirmed prospectively with the use of systematic echocardiography.

KW - Bloodstream infection

KW - Echocardiography

KW - Infective endocarditis

KW - Streptococcal species

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85110531026&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1186/s12879-021-06391-2

DO - 10.1186/s12879-021-06391-2

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 34271874

VL - 21

SP - 689

JO - BMC Infectious Diseases

JF - BMC Infectious Diseases

SN - 1471-2334

IS - 1

M1 - 689

ER -

ID: 66724199