OBJECTIVE: Proinflammatory cytokines are cytotoxic to beta-cells and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes and islet graft failure. The importance of the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in cytokine-induced beta-cell death is unclear. Here, cytokine activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and the role of the two proapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, Bad and Bax, were examined in beta-cells.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Human and rat islets and INS-1 cells were exposed to a combination of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1beta, interferon-gamma, and/or tumor necrosis factor-alpha). Activation of Bad was determined by Ser136 dephosphorylation, mitochondrial stress by changes in mitochondrial metabolic activity and cytochrome c release, downstream apoptotic signaling by activation of caspase-9 and -3, and DNA fragmentation. The inhibitors FK506 and V5 were used to investigate the role of Bad and Bax activation, respectively.
RESULTS: We found that proinflammatory cytokines induced calcineurin-dependent dephosphorylation of Bad Ser136, mitochondrial stress, cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-9 and -3, and DNA fragmentation. Inhibition of Bad Ser136 dephosphorylation or Bax was found to inhibit cytokine-induced intrinsic proapoptotic signaling.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway contributes significantly to cytokine-induced beta-cell death and suggest a functional role of calcineurin-mediated Bad Ser136 dephosphorylation and Bax activity in cytokine-induced apoptosis.
|Status||Udgivet - aug. 2009|