Positive effect of parathyroidectomy compared to observation on BMD in a randomized controlled trial of mild primary hyperparathyroidism

Karolina Lundstam, Mikkel Pretorius, Jens Bollerslev, Kristin Godang, Morten W Fagerland, Charlotte Mollerup, Stine L Fougner, Ylva Pernow, Turid Aas, Ola Hessman, Thord Rosén, Jörgen Nordenström, Svante Jansson, Mikael Hellström, Ansgar Heck


Mild or asymptomatic disease is now the dominating presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). However, bone involvement with decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and an increased risk of fractures has been demonstrated. Indications for parathyroidectomy (PTX) in mild PHPT have been debated for years. There is a need of long-term randomized studies comparing PTX with observation without intervention (OBS). Here, we present bone health data from the Scandinavian Investigation of Primary Hyperparathyroidism (SIPH), a randomized controlled trial, comparing PTX to OBS. This study included 191 patients (96 OBS/95 PTX), and 129 patients (64 OBS/65 PTX) were followed for 10 years to the end of study (EOS). BMD was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), peripheral fractures were noted, and spine radiographs were obtained for vertebral fracture assessment. There was a significant treatment effect of PTX on BMD compared with OBS for all analyzed compartments, most explicit for the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) (p < 0.001). The mean changes in T-score from baseline to 10 years were from 0.41 for radius 33% (Rad33) to 0.58 for LS greater in the PTX group than in the OBS group. There was a significant decrease in BMD for all compartments in the OBS group, most pronounced for FN, Rad33, and ultradistal radius (UDR) (p < 0.001). Even though there was a significant treatment effect of PTX compared with OBS, there was only a significant increase in BMD over time for LS (p < 0.001). We found no difference between groups in fracture frequency in the 10-year cohort, neither with modified intention-to-treat (mITT) analysis nor per protocol analysis. Because BMD is only a surrogate endpoint of bone health and PTX did not reduce fracture risk, observation could be considered a safe option for many patients with mild PHPT regarding bone health in a 10-year perspective. © 2023 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).


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