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Physical Activity and Subsequent Change in Body Weight, Composition and Shape: Effect Modification by Familial Overweight

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Background: Physical activity (PA) has been shown to attenuate the genetic risk of obesity as measured using polygenic risk scores. However, familial obesity history might be an easier predictor. We examined associations between PA and subsequent changes in BMI, body fat percentage (BF%) and waist circumference (WC) among participants with and without adiposity and a familial overweight.

Methods: In total, 1971 participants from the Danish MONICA cohort were included. Mean differences for 6-year changes in BMI, BF% and WC across PA levels were estimated. Association between walking and biking and subsequent change in adiposity were analysed. Effect modification by familial obesity was assessed by adding product terms to the models.

Results: We observed weak associations between leisure PA level and changes in WC [participants with low PA: 3.4 cm (95%CI: 2.8;4.0), participants with high PA: 2.4 cm (95%CI: 1.8;3.0)], with no evidence of effect modification by familial obesity. We found effect modification in analyses on walking and biking in relation to changes in BMI (P-interaction<0.01) and BF% (P-interaction=0.04), suggesting lower gain with more hours of activity among participants with adiposity and familial overweight.

Conclusions: The results were modest but suggested that PA, especially walking and biking, may prevent future adiposity.

TidsskriftFrontiers in Endocrinology
Sider (fra-til)787827
StatusUdgivet - 2022

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Copyright © 2022 Specht, Heitmann and Larsen.

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