Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation of nitrofurantoin against Escherichia coli in a murine urinary tract infection model

Marit Gaastra Maaland, Lotte Jakobsen, Luca Guardabassi, Niels Frimodt-Møller*

*Corresponding author af dette arbejde

Abstract

The antimicrobial agent nitrofurantoin is becoming increasingly important for treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs) due to widespread occurrence of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli. Despite many years of use, little data on nitrofurantoin pharmacokinetics (PK) or -dynamics (PD) exist. The objective of this study was to (i) evaluate the pharmacokinetics of nitrofurantoin in a mouse model and (ii) use that data to design an in vivo dose fractionation study in an experimental model of UTI with E. coli for determination of the most predictive PK/PD index. Nitrofurantoin concentrations in urine were approximately 100-fold larger than concentrations in plasma after oral administration of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg nitrofurantoin. The area under the curve over the minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC/MIC) was weakly correlated to bacterial reduction in urine (r2 = 0.24), while no such correlation was found for the time that nitrofurantoin stayed above the MIC (T > MIC). Increasing size of single-dose treatment was significantly correlated to eradication of bacteria in the urine, while this was not apparent when the same doses were divided in 2 or 3 doses 8 or 12 h apart. In conclusion, the results indicate that nitrofurantoin activity against E. coli in urine is driven by AUC/MIC.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftAPMIS - Journal of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology
ISSN0903-4641
DOI
StatusE-pub ahead of print - 1 apr. 2024

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