The role of hybrid imaging with 2-[18F] flourodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) is continuously evolving and now considered standard practice in evaluation of disease stage, treatment response, recurrent disease and follow-up for numerous primary malignancies. In gynecological malignancies FDG PET/CT plays an important role, not only in the assessment of disease in the pre-and post-therapy setting, but also in radiation therapy (RT) planning by defining the metabolically active gross tumor volume (GTV. The glucose analogue radiotracer, FDG, is by far the most utilized radiotracer in PET/CT and is typically seen with high uptake in malignant cells. The radiotracer FDG has a high sensitivity but low specificity for malignancy, as benign processes with an inflammatory response for example infection, are also FDG-avid. In the evaluation of the female pelvic region an awareness of potential confounding factors in the interpretation of FDG is essential as variations of FDG uptake occur in accordance with the menstrual cycle and the menopausal state. Incidental imaging findings in the female genital can pose differential diagnostic challenges as false-positive and false-negative findings in benign and malignant processes are not uncommon. Gynecological malignancies continue to pose major public health problems with cervical cancer as the fourth most common cancer in women ranking after breast cancer, colorectal cancer and lung cancer. Familiarity with frequently encountered benign and malignant variants and pitfalls in FDG PET/CT in the female pelvic region can aid the reader in differential diagnostic considerations.

TidsskriftSeminars in Nuclear Medicine
Udgave nummer6
Sider (fra-til)593-610
Antal sider18
StatusUdgivet - nov. 2021


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