On the sequence selective bis-intercalation of a homodimeric thiazole orange dye in DNA

Jakob Bunkenborg, M M Stidsen, J P Jacobsen

25 Citationer (Scopus)


The thiazole orange dye 1,1'-(4,4,8,8-tetramethyl-4, 8-diazaundecamethylene)-bis-4-[(3-methyl-2,3-dihydro(benzo-1, 3-thiazolyl)-2-methylidene]quinolinium tetraiodide (TOTO) binds sequence selectively to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) by bis-intercalation. Each chromophore is sandwiched between two base pairs in a d(5'-py-p-py-3'):d(5'-pu-p-pu-3') site, and the linker spans over two base pairs in the minor groove. We have examined the binding of TOTO to various dsDNA oligonucleotides containing variations of the 5'-CTAG-3' binding motif by introducing inosine (I = inosine, 2-desaminoguanosine) and 5-methylcytosine ((me)C). A one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy characterization yielded detailed structural information on the binding mode and for the well-defined TOTO-complexes competition experiments allowed determination of the relative binding strengths resulting from the various structural alterations. The experimentally observed base pair preference of TOTO in the palindromic sequences investigated is (me)CG > CG > CI > TA for the flanking base pair and (me)CI > CI > TA > CG > UA for the central base pair. The best binding site observed so far is the d(5-C(me)CIG-3')(2) site. This site is much more favorable than the d(5'-CTAG-3')(2) site formerly believed to be the best binding site. The present paper discusses these results in terms of different contributions to the binding affinity and offers some explanations for the site selectivity of TOTO.
TidsskriftBioconjugate Chemistry
Udgave nummer5
Sider (fra-til)824-31
Antal sider8
StatusUdgivet - 1998
Udgivet eksterntJa


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