Near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring of neonatal cerebrovascular reactivity: where are we now?

Silvia Martini*, Liesbeth Thewissen, Topun Austin, Cristine Sortica da Costa, Willem P de Boode, Eugene Dempsey, Elisabeth Kooi, Adelina Pellicer, Christopher J Rhee, Joan Riera, Martin Wolf, Flora Wong, European Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR) Special Interest Group “Near InfraRed Spectroscopy” (NIRS), Gorm Greisen (Medlem af forfattergruppering), Mathias Lühr Hansen (Medlem af forfattergruppering), Morten Breindahl (Medlem af forfattergruppering), Gitte W. Hahn (Medlem af forfattergruppering)

*Corresponding author af dette arbejde

Abstract

Cerebrovascular reactivity defines the ability of the cerebral vasculature to regulate its resistance in response to both local and systemic factors to ensure an adequate cerebral blood flow to meet the metabolic demands of the brain. The increasing adoption of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for non-invasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation and perfusion allowed investigation of the mechanisms underlying cerebrovascular reactivity in the neonatal population, confirming important associations with pathological conditions including the development of brain injury and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, the current literature on neonatal cerebrovascular reactivity is mainly still based on small, observational studies and is characterised by methodological heterogeneity; this has hindered the routine application of NIRS-based monitoring of cerebrovascular reactivity to identify infants most at risk of brain injury. This review aims (1) to provide an updated review on neonatal cerebrovascular reactivity, assessed using NIRS; (2) to identify critical points that need to be addressed with targeted research; and (3) to propose feasibility trials in order to fill the current knowledge gaps and to possibly develop a preventive or curative approach for preterm brain injury. IMPACT: NIRS monitoring has been largely applied in neonatal research to assess cerebrovascular reactivity in response to blood pressure, PaCO2 and other biochemical or metabolic factors, providing novel insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying cerebral blood flow regulation. Despite these insights, the current literature shows important pitfalls that would benefit to be addressed in a series of targeted trials, proposed in the present review, in order to translate the assessment of cerebrovascular reactivity into routine monitoring in neonatal clinical practice.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftPediatric Research
ISSN0031-3998
DOI
StatusE-pub ahead of print - 30 mar. 2023

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