Nationwide prevalence and characteristics of transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy in Sweden

Rosa Elisabeth Lauppe, Johan Liseth Hansen, Christian Gerdesköld, Mark H Rozenbaum, Anne Mette Strand, Merja Vakevainen, Johanna Kuusisto, Einar Gude, Finn Gustafsson, J Gustav Smith


OBJECTIVE: Transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy (ATTR-CM) is a rare, progressive and fatal condition caused by deposition of transthyretin amyloid fibrils in the heart. This study aims to identify all patients diagnosed with ATTR-CM in Sweden, estimate the prevalence of ATTR-CM, describe patient characteristics and mortality, assess the importance of early symptoms (red flags) for identification of ATTR-CM, and compare with patients with heart failure (HF).

METHODS: This retrospective study combined multiple national health registers covering all specialist visits and prescriptions for the entire population of Sweden. Between January 2008 and December 2018, patients with ATTR-CM were identified retrospectively based on a combination of diagnosis codes and compared with matched, all-cause non-ATTR HF patients.

RESULTS: Overall, a total of 994 patients diagnosed with ATTR-CM were identified, with an average age at diagnosis of 73 years, and 30% of whom were female. The prevalence of diagnosed ATTR-CM cases in 2018 was 5.0 per 100 000. The median survival from diagnosis was 37.6 months (CI 33.8 to 43.8), with a lower median survival in women (27.9 months, CI 23.3 to 33.8) compared with men (43.5 months, CI 37.6 to 49.6). Patients with ATTR-CM demonstrated reduced survival compared with patients with HF (p<0.001). Compared with patients with HF, clinical identification of carpal tunnel syndrome, spinal stenosis, and atrioventricular and left bundle branch block can facilitate earlier diagnosis of ATTR-CM.

CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first nationwide estimates of ATTR-CM prevalence and risk factors. The results reinforce the severity of the disease and the importance of earlier diagnosis, especially for female patients, in order to allow effective treatment and prevention of disease progression.

TidsskriftOpen Heart
Udgave nummer2
Sider (fra-til)e001755
StatusUdgivet - okt. 2021


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