Nanoconfined anti-oxidizing RAFT nitroxide radical polymer for reduction of low-density lipoprotein oxidation and foam cell formation

Suman Basak, Harshvardhan Ajay Khare, Paul J Kempen, Nazila Kamaly, Kristoffer Almdal*

*Corresponding author af dette arbejde

Abstrakt

Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of death worldwide. Antioxidant therapy has been considered a promising treatment modality for atherosclerosis, since reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a major role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We developed ROS-scavenging antioxidant nanoparticles (NPs) that can serve as an effective therapy for atherosclerosis. The newly developed novel antioxidant ROS-eliminating NPs were synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization and act as a superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic agent. SOD is an anti-ROS enzyme which is difficult to use for passive delivery due to its low half-life and stability. Copolymers were synthesized using different feed ratios of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidyl methacrylate (PMA) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) monomers and an anti-ROS nitroxyl radical polymer was prepared via oxidation. The copolymer was further conjugated with a 6-aminofluorescein via a oxirane ring opening reaction for intracellular delivery in RAW 264.7 cells. The synthesized copolymers were blended to create NPs (∼150 nm size) in aqueous medium and highly stable up to three weeks. The NPs were shown to be taken up by macrophages and to be cytocompatible even at high dose levels (500 μg mL-1). Finally, the nitroxide NPs has been shown to inhibit foam cell formation in macrophages by decreasing internalization of oxidized low-density lipoproteins.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftNanoscale advances
Vol/bind4
Udgave nummer3
Sider (fra-til)742-753
Antal sider12
ISSN2516-0230
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 1 feb. 2022

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