Docetaxel-a taxane-based chemotherapeutic agent-was the first treatment to demonstrate significant improvements in overall survival in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). However, the response to docetaxel is generally short-lived, and relapse eventually occurs due to the development of resistance. To explore the mechanisms of acquired docetaxel resistance in prostate cancer (PCa) and set these in the context of androgen deprivation therapy, we established docetaxel-resistant PCa cell lines, derived from the androgen-dependent LNCaP cell line, and from the LNCaP lineage-derived androgen-independent C4-2B sub-line. We generated two docetaxel-resistant LNCaPR and C4-2BR sub-lines, with IC50 values 77- and 50-fold higher than those of the LNCaP and C4-2B parental cells, respectively. We performed gene expression analysis of the matched sub-lines and found several alterations that may confer docetaxel resistance. In addition to increased expression of ABCB1, an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, and a well-known gene associated with development of docetaxel resistance, we identified genes associated with androgen signaling, cell survival, and overexpression of ncRNAs. In conclusion, we identified multiple mechanisms that may be associated with the development of taxane drug resistance in PCa. Actioning these mechanisms could provide a potential approach to re-sensitization of docetaxel-resistant PCa cells to docetaxel treatment and thereby further add to the life-prolonging effects of this drug in men with mCRPC.