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Models of the venous system

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Cardiac output is largely controlled by venous return, the driving force of which is the energy remaining at the postcapillary venous site. This force is influenced by forces acting close to the right atrium, and internally or externally upon the veins along their course. Analogue models of the venous system require at least three elements: a resistor, a capacitor and an inductor, with the latter being of more importance in the venous than in the arterial system. Non-linearities must be considered in pressure/flow relations in the small venules, during venous collapse, or low flow conditions. The venous capacitance is also non-linear, but may be considered linear under certain conditions. The models have to include time varying pressure sources created by respiration and skeletal muscles, and if the description includes the upright position, the partly unidirectional flow through the venous valves has to be considered.
OriginalsprogEngelsk
BogserieStudies in Health Technology and Informatics
Vol/bind71
Sider (fra-til)109-17
Antal sider9
ISSN0926-9630
StatusUdgivet - 1 jan. 2000

ID: 32352158