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Metals in used and unused metalworking fluids: X-ray fluorescence spectrometry as a screening test

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Vis graf over relationer

BACKGROUND: Exposure to metalworking fluids (MWFs) is a well-known cause of occupational contact dermatitis.

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to (1) determine the amount of nickel, chromium, and cobalt in large samples of used and unused MWFs collected from metalworking plants in Denmark, and (2) evaluate a handheld x-ray fluorescence (XRF) device as a screening instrument for metals in MWFs.

METHODS: A handheld XRF device was used to screen for metals in MWFs. All samples were also analyzed for concentrations of nickel, chromium, and cobalt using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS).

RESULTS: GFAAS analysis showed that 13 of 80 samples (16.3%) contained >1 mg/kg (ppm) nickel (range: 6.4-17.7 mg/kg), 3 of 80 (3.8%) contained >1 (range: 1.4-3.1) mg/kg chromium, and 1 of 80 (1.3%) contained 1.3 mg/kg cobalt. XRF-screening detected nickel in eight samples (range: 2.5-15.5 mg/kg), but only one sample with 3.0 (±0.5) mg/kg was found subsequently to contain 9.9 (0.02) mg/kg nickel by GFAAS. Although no chromium was found by XRF analysis, cobalt was found in two samples with 6 (±1.5) mg/kg and 5 (±1.5) mg/kg, subsequently found to contain 0.1 (±0.01) mg/kg and 0.08 (±0.01) mg/kg by GFAAS. Similar concentrations of nickel were found in used (N = 6, range: 6.4-17.7 mg/kg) and unused MWFs (N = 7, range: 9.1-17.3 mg/kg).

CONCLUSION: Considerable levels of nickel, chromium, and cobalt were found in some used and unused MWFs indicating that these might represent a source of metal allergy. The XRF device is a poor screening test for these metals in MWFs.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftContact Dermatitis
Vol/bind83
Udgave nummer2
Sider (fra-til)83-87
Antal sider5
ISSN0105-1873
DOI
StatusUdgivet - aug. 2020

Bibliografisk note

© 2020 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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