Low-grade inflammation in type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study from a Danish diabetes outpatient clinic

Tina Okdahl, Anne-Marie Langmach Wegeberg, Flemming Pociot, Birgitte Brock, Joachim Størling, Christina Brock


OBJECTIVES: To investigate low-grade inflammation in type 2 diabetes and explore associations to clinical aspects as well as microvascular and macrovascular complications.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis.

SETTING: The outpatient diabetes clinic at the Department of Endocrinology at Aalborg University Hospital, Denmark.

PARTICIPANTS: 100 participants with type 2 diabetes confirmed by a haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)≥6.5% for a minimum of 1 year and 21 healthy controls.

OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum levels of 27 inflammation-related biomarkers measured by immunoassay. Associations with microvascular and macrovascular complications, body weight, glycaemic control, medication and sex were investigated in the diabetes cohort.

RESULTS: Serum levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and eotaxin were elevated in type 2 diabetes (p<0.05), while interleukin (IL)-7 was decreased (p<0.001). IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-15, macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) and C reactive protein (CRP) levels were increased with body weight (p<0.05), while eotaxin and TNF-α were increased with elevated HbA1c levels (p<0.04). Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor therapy was associated with lower levels of induced protein-10, MDC and thymus and activation regulated chemokine (p<0.02), while females had higher levels of MDC (p=0.027). Individuals with ≥3 diabetic complications had elevated levels of IL-6, IL-10, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-15 and CRP compared with those with ≤3 (p<0.05).

CONCLUSION: The level of low-grade inflammation in type 2 diabetes is associated with obesity, glycaemic regulation, therapeutical management, sex and complications. Our results underline the importance of addressing inflammatory issues in type 2 diabetes, as these may predispose for crippling comorbidities.

TidsskriftBMJ Paediatrics Open
Udgave nummer12
Sider (fra-til)e062188
StatusUdgivet - 14 dec. 2022


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