Long-Term Incidence of Infective Endocarditis among Patients with Congenital Heart Disease

Eva Havers-Borgersen*, Jawad H Butt, Lauge Østergaard, Jeppe K Petersen, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Lars Køber, Emil L Fosbøl

*Corresponding author af dette arbejde


BACKGROUND: Patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) are at lifelong high risk of infective endocarditis (IE). The risk of IE presumably differs among different CHD, but little knowledge exists on the area.

METHODS: In this observational cohort study, all CHD-patients born in 1977 to 2018 were identified using Danish nationwide registries and followed from the date of birth until first-time IE, emigration, death, or end of study (December 31, 2018). The comparative risk of IE among CHD-patients vs age- and sex-matched controls from the background population was assessed. The risk of IE was stratified according to the type of CHD and factors associated with IE including sex and relevant time-varying coefficients (ie, cyanosis, cardiac prostheses, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and cardiac implantable electronic devices) were examined using Cox-regression analysis.

RESULTS: A total of 23,464 CHD-patients (50.0% men) were identified and matched with 93,856 controls. During a median follow-up of 17.7 years, 217(0.9%) CHD-patients and 4(0.0%) controls developed IE, corresponding to incidence rates of 5.2(95%CI 4.6-6.0) and 0.02(95%CI 0.01-0.1) per 10,000 person-years, respectively. The incidence of IE was greatest among patients with tetralogy of fallot, malformations of the heart chambers (including transposition of the great arteries, univentricular heart, and truncus arteriosus), atrioventricular septal defects, and heart valve defects. Factors associated with IE among CHD-patients included male sex, cyanosis, cardiac prostheses, chronic kidney disease, and cardiac implantable electronic devices.

CONCLUSIONS: CHD-patients have a substantially higher associated incidence of IE than the background population. With the increasing longevity of these patients, relevant guidelines concerning preventive measures are important.

TidsskriftAmerican Heart Journal
Sider (fra-til)9-20
Antal sider12
StatusUdgivet - 2023


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