Iodine intake before and after mandatory iodization in Denmark: results from the Danish Investigation of Iodine Intake and Thyroid Diseases (DanThyr) study

Lone B Rasmussen, Allan Carlé, Torben Jørgensen, Nils Knudsen, Peter Laurberg, Inge B Pedersen, Hans Perrild, Pernille Vejbjerg, Lars Ovesen

Abstract

Iodine deficiency is still common in some European countries. In Denmark an iodine fortification programme was introduced in 1998 and a monitoring programme was established prior to iodization. This study reports the change in urinary iodine excretion caused by fortification and investigates determinants of iodine intake after fortification. Iodine excretion in casual urine samples was assessed in 4649 subjects in 1997-8 and in 3570 comparable subjects in 2004-5 in women 18-22, 25-30, 40-45 and 60-65 years of age and in men 60-65 years of age living in Aalborg (western part of Denmark) or Copenhagen (eastern part of Denmark). These areas had moderate and mild iodine deficiency, respectively, before iodine fortification. All subjects filled in a FFQ and a questionnaire regarding lifestyle factors. Iodine excretion, expressed as the estimated 24 h urinary iodine excretion and as urinary iodine concentration, increased significantly in all age and sex groups. However, the iodine intake was still below the recommended in the youngest age groups in both cities and in women 40-45 years of age living in Aalborg. Intake of milk and salt had strong significant direct associations with iodine excretion (P < 0.001). It is concluded that although the median iodine intake in the whole study population is at the recommended level, some groups still have an intake below the recommended. It is important to have a moderate milk intake to obtain a sufficient iodine intake in Denmark.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftThe British journal of nutrition
Vol/bind100
Udgave nummer1
Sider (fra-til)166-73
Antal sider8
ISSN0007-1145
DOI
StatusUdgivet - jul. 2008

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