Invasive Aspergillosis among Lung Transplant Recipients during Time Periods with Universal and Targeted Antifungal Prophylaxis-A Nationwide Cohort Study

Cornelia Geisler Crone*, Signe Marie Wulff, Bruno Ledergerber, Jannik Helweg-Larsen, Pia Bredahl, Maiken Cavling Arendrup, Michael Perch, Marie Helleberg

*Corresponding author af dette arbejde

Abstract

The optimal prevention strategy for invasive aspergillosis (IA) in lung transplant recipients (LTXr) is unknown. In 2016, the Danish guidelines were changed from universal to targeted IA prophylaxis. Previously, we found higher rates of adverse events in the universal prophylaxis period. In a Danish nationwide study including LTXr, for 2010-2019, we compared IA rates in time periods with universal vs. targeted prophylaxis and during person-time with vs. person-time without antifungal prophylaxis. IA hazard rates were analyzed in multivariable Cox models with adjustment for time after LTX. Among 295 LTXr, antifungal prophylaxis was initiated in 183/193 and 6/102 during the universal and targeted period, respectively. During the universal period, 62% discontinued prophylaxis prematurely. The median time on prophylaxis was 37 days (IQR 11-84). IA was diagnosed in 27/193 (14%) vs. 15/102 (15%) LTXr in the universal vs. targeted period, with an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 0.94 (95% CI 0.49-1.82). The aHR of IA during person-time with vs. person-time without antifungal prophylaxis was 0.36 (95% CI 0.12-1.02). No difference in IA was found during periods with universal vs. targeted prophylaxis. Prophylaxis was protective of IA when taken. Targeted prophylaxis may be preferred over universal due to comparable IA rates and lower rates of adverse events.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
Artikelnummer1079
TidsskriftJournal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Vol/bind9
Udgave nummer11
ISSN2309-608X
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 4 nov. 2023

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