Influenza in Liver and Kidney Transplant Recipients: Incidence and Outcomes

Nicoline Stender Arentoft, Dina Leth Møller, Andreas Delhbæk Knudsen, Ranya Abdulovski, Nikolai Kirkby, Søren Schwartz Sørensen, Allan Rasmussen, Susanne Dam Nielsen*

*Corresponding author af dette arbejde

Abstract

Influenza is a common respiratory tract infection in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. We aimed to investigate the incidence, risk factors, and complications of influenza in a large cohort of kidney and liver transplant recipients over 10 consecutive seasons. We conducted a retrospective study, including 378 liver and 683 kidney transplant recipients who were transplanted from January 1, 2010, to October 1, 2019. The data on influenza were retrieved from MiBa, which is a nationwide database that contains all of the microbiology results in Denmark. Clinical data were retrieved from patient records. Incidence rates and cumulative incidences were calculated, and risk factors were investigated using time-updated Cox proportional hazards models. The cumulative incidence of influenza in the first 5 years posttransplantation was 6.3% (95% CI: 4.7 to 7.9%). Of the 84 influenza positive recipients, 63.1% had influenza A, 65.5% were treated with oseltamivir, 65.5% were hospitalized, and 16.7% developed pneumonia. There were no significant differences in outcomes when comparing patients with influenza A and B. We found no significant effect of same-season influenza vaccination, sex, age, or comorbidities on the risk of acquiring influenza. The incidence of influenza in kidney and liver recipients is high, and 65.5% of infected transplant recipients required hospitalization. We were not able to confirm a reduction in influenza incidence or in the risk of complications associated with vaccination. IMPORTANCE Influenza is a common respiratory virus in solid organ transplant recipients that may have severe complications, including pneumonia and hospitalization. This study investigates the incidence, risk factors, and complications of influenza in a Danish cohort of kidney and liver transplant recipients over 10 consecutive influenza seasons. The study shows a high incidence of influenza and a high frequency of both pneumonia and hospitalization. This emphasizes the importance of continuous focus on influenza in this vulnerable group. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the incidence of influenza has been low due to COVID-related restrictions, and immunity may have waned. However, as most countries have now opened up, the incidence of influenza is expected to be high this season.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
Artikelnummere0322622
TidsskriftMicrobiology spectrum
Vol/bind11
Udgave nummer2
Antal sider7
ISSN2165-0497
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 2023

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