Inflammatory Cytokine Profiles Do Not Differ Between Patients With Idiopathic Cytopenias of Undetermined Significance and Myelodysplastic Syndromes

Amalie Bach Nielsen, Jakob Werner Hansen, Andreas Due Ørskov, Konstantinos Dimopoulos, Mohammad Salem, Mariam Grigorian, Helle Bruunsgaard, Kirsten Grønbæk*

*Corresponding author af dette arbejde

Abstract

Immune dysregulation has been highlighted as a key player in the pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), but little is known about cytokine profiles in patients with unexplained cytopenia with or without mutations in MDS-associated genes (clonal cytopenias of undetermined significance [CCUS] and idiopathic cytopenias of undetermined significance [ICUS], respectively), which often precede MDS. Here, we study the cytokine profiles in 111 patients with ICUS (N = 41), CCUS (N = 30), lower-risk MDS (LR-MDS; N = 22) and higher-risk MDS (HR-MDS; N = 18), and in healthy elderly controls (N = 21). Twenty cytokines were examined in blood plasma at time of diagnosis using Luminex assays and enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. The cytokine levels were compared between patient groups, and in patients versus controls. Associations between cytokines and MDS-associated mutations were evaluated. An aberrant cytokine profile was observed in all patient groups relative to healthy elderly controls. Patients had significantly higher levels of IL-6 (P< 0 .001), tumor necrosis factor α (P < 0.001), IL-10 (P < 0.001), and C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (P < 0.001) and lower levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 (P < 0.001), CCL5/regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (P < 0.001), and S100A4 (P < 0.001) compared with healthy controls. Survival was significantly shorter in CCUS and MDS patients with a high systemic inflammatory cytokine load (median overall survival [OS] 21 months) compared with those with low-moderate systemic inflammatory cytokine load (median OS 64 months; P < 0.0001). These data suggest that patients with ICUS and CCUS have cytokine levels as abnormal as in LR-MDS. Indeed, high cytokine levels are present before MDS is diagnosed and cytokine levels are elevated irrespective of the presence or size of the myeloid clones. Cytokines may have a prognostic impact at a very early premalignant stage of myeloid disorders.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftHemaSphere
Vol/bind6
Udgave nummer5
Sider (fra-til)e0713
ISSN2572-9241
DOI
StatusUdgivet - maj 2022

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