BACKGROUND: The risk of pelvic sepsis following IPAA for ulcerative colitis may have changed with changes in medical and surgical treatment, but data are scarce.
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to examine temporal changes in the risk of pelvic sepsis following IPAA for ulcerative colitis and to ascertain risk factors associated with pelvic sepsis.
DESIGN: This is a nationwide cohort study.
SETTING: This study was conducted in Denmark from 1996 to 2013.
PATIENTS: Patients were operated on with an IPAA for ulcerative colitis.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pelvic sepsis was defined and validated as the occurrence of anastomotic leakage, pelvic abscesses or fistulas, or an operation for these conditions, recorded in a nationwide registry. Cumulative risks were calculated by using death as a competing risk. Multivariate Cox regression was used to examine the effects of calendar periods (1996-1999, 2000-2004, 2005-2009, and 2010-2013) on hazards ratios for pelvic sepsis, adjusting for age, sex, comorbidity, annual hospital volume, pelvic sepsis in the 12 months preceding surgery, operative stage (1-, 2-, modified 2-, or 3-stage), laparoscopy, and preoperative treatment with biological medicine within 12 weeks before surgery.
RESULTS: Of 1456 patients, 244 (16.8%) experienced pelvic sepsis. The 1-year risk increased by calendar period (1996-1999: 2.5%, 2000-2004: 4.5%, 2005-2009: 7.4%, and 2010-2013: 9.6%). The adjusted hazard ratio for pelvic sepsis increased by an average 4.4% (95% CI, 1.3-7.6) per year in the study period. In general, patients were older and had more comorbidities at IPAA in recent years than in earlier years, and more had experienced pelvic sepsis in the 12 months preceding the operation.
LIMITATIONS: This study was register based. There were no data on important clinical variables to determine the causes of an increased risk over calendar periods.
CONCLUSION: In this nationwide cohort study, the 1-year risk of pelvic sepsis following primary IPAA for ulcerative colitis increased 4-fold from 1996 to 2013. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A956.