Increased risk of cardiovascular disease preceding diagnosis of incident ANCA-associated vasculitis: a Danish nationwide study

Louis Nygaard*, Christoffer Polcwiartek, Karl Emil Nelveg-Kristensen, Nicholas Carlson, Salome Kristensen, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Jon Waarst Gregersen, DANVAS investigators

*Corresponding author af dette arbejde

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in the months prior to diagnosis of AAV.

METHODS: Using a nested case-control framework, patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis were identified through the Danish Nationwide Registries from 1996 to 2021 and matched 1:3 with age- and sex-matched controls without AAV. Each control was assigned the same index date (date of AAV diagnosis) as their corresponding case. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), ischaemic heart disease, coronary angiogram, heart failure, venous thromboembolism, atrial fibrillation, ischaemic stroke, pericarditis and ventricular arrhythmias/implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation/cardiac arrest (VA/ICD/CA) within 12 months, 6 months, 3 months, 2 months and 1 month before index date.

RESULTS: A total of 2371 patients with AAV (median age 63 years, 53.7% male) were matched with 7113 controls. The prevalence of any cardiovascular outcome and MACE within 12 months preceding index date were 10.3% and 2.4% for AAV, compared with 3.8% [HR 3.05 (95% CI 2.48-3.75)] and 1.3% [HR 1.98 (95% CI 1.39-2.82)] of controls. The risk of cardiovascular outcomes was similarly increased in temporal proximity to the diagnosis, with the highest HR at 1 month prior to index date: any cardiovascular outcome [HR 10.73 (95% CI 7.05-16.32)] and MACE [HR 5.78 (95% CI 2.67-12.52)]. In individual analysis, a significantly higher rate was observed for all outcomes (excluding VA/ICD/CA).

CONCLUSIONS: AAV disease is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in the months preceding diagnosis, which underlines the importance of early clinical vigilance towards cardiovascular disease.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftRheumatology (Oxford, England)
Vol/bind63
Udgave nummer5
Sider (fra-til)1313-1321
ISSN1462-0324
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 2024

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