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Improved cephalic index following early cranial vault remodeling in patients with isolated nonsyndromic sagittal synostosis

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  • Arvid Frostell
  • Maryam Haghighi
  • Jiri Bartek
  • Ulrika Sandvik
  • Bengt Gustavsson
  • Adrian Elmi-Terander
  • Erik Edström
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OBJECTIVE: Isolated nonsyndromic sagittal synostosis (SS) is the most common form of craniosynostosis in children, accounting for approximately 60% of all craniosynostoses. The typical cranial measurement used to define and follow SS is the cephalic index (CI). Several surgical techniques have been suggested, but agreement on type and timing of surgery is lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the authors' institutional experience of surgically treating SS using a modified subtotal cranial vault remodeling technique in a population-based cohort. Special attention was directed toward the effect of patient age at time of surgery on long-term CI outcome.

METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted on all patients with isolated nonsyndromic SS who were surgically treated from 2003 to 2011. Data from electronic medical records were gathered. Eighty-two patients with SS were identified, 77 fulfilled inclusion criteria, and 72 had sufficient follow-up data and were included. CI during follow-up after surgery was investigated with ANOVA and a linear mixed model.

RESULTS: In total, 72 patients were analyzed, consisting of 16 females (22%) and 56 males (78%). The mean ± SD age at surgery was 4.1 ± 3.1 months. Blood transfusions were received by 81% of patients (26% intraoperatively, 64% postoperatively, 9% both). The mean ± SD time in the pediatric ICU was 1.1 ± 0.25 days, and the mean ± SD total hospital length of stay was 4.6 ± 2.0 days. No patient required reoperation. The mean ± SD CI increased from 69 ± 3 to 87 ± 5 for patients who underwent surgery before 45 days of age. Surgery resulted in a larger increase in CI for patients who underwent surgery at a younger age compared with older patients (p < 0.05, Tukey's HSD test). In the comparison of patients who underwent surgery before 45 days of age with patients who underwent surgery at 45-90, 90-180, and more than 180 days of age, the linear mixed model estimated a long-term loss of CI of 3.0, 5.5, and 7.4 points, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: The modified subtotal cranial vault remodeling technique used in this study significantly improved CI in patients with SS. The best results were achieved when surgery was performed early in life.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftNeurosurgical Focus
Vol/bind50
Udgave nummer4
Sider (fra-til)1-8
Antal sider8
ISSN1092-0684
DOI
StatusUdgivet - apr. 2021

ID: 67242913