Improved agreement between N2 and SF6 multiple-breath washout in healthy infants and toddlers with improved EXHALYZER D sensor performance

Rikke M Sandvik*, Per M Gustafsson, Anders Lindblad, Paul D Robinson, Kim G Nielsen

*Corresponding author af dette arbejde

Abstract

Recent studies indicate limited utility of nitrogen multiple-breath washout (N2MBW) in infancy and advocate for using sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) MBW in this age-group. Modern N2MBW systems, such as EXHALYZER D (ECO MEDICS AG, Duernten, Switzerland), use O2 and CO2 sensors to calculate N2 concentrations (in principle, N2% = 100 - CO2% - O2%). High O2 and CO2 concentrations have now been shown to significantly suppress signal output from the other sensor, raising apparent N2 concentrations. We examined whether improved EXHALYZER D N2 signal, accomplished after thorough examination of this CO2 and O2 interaction on gas sensors and its correction, leads to better agreement between N2MBW and SF6MBW in healthy infants and toddlers. Within the same session, 52 healthy children aged 1-36 mo [mean = 1.30 (SD = 0.72) yr] completed SF6MBW and N2MBW recordings (EXHALYZER D, SPIROWARE version 3.2.1) during supine quiet sleep. SF6 and N2 SPIROWARE files were reanalyzed offline with in-house software using identical algorithms as in SPIROWARE with or without application of the new correction factors for N2MBW provided by ECO MEDICS AG. Applying the improved N2 signal significantly reduced mean [95% confidence interval (CI)] differences between N2MBW and SF6MBW recorded functional residual capacity (FRC) and lung clearance index (LCI): for FRC, from 26.1 (21.0, 31.2) mL, P < 0.0001, to 1.18 (-2.3, 4.5) mL, P = 0.5, and for LCI, from 1.86 (1.68, 2.02), P < 0.001, to 0.44 (0.33, 0.55), P < 0.001. Correction of N2 signal for CO2 and O2 interactions on gas sensors resulted in markedly closer agreement between N2MBW and SF6MBW outcomes in healthy infants and toddlers.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Modern nitrogen multiple-breath washout (N2MBW) systems such as EXHALYZER D use O2 and CO2 sensors to calculate N2 concentrations. New corrections for interactions between high O2 and CO2 concentrations on the gas sensors now provide accurate N2 signals. The correct N2 signal led to much improved agreement between N2MBW and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) MBW functional residual capacity (FRC) and lung clearance index (LCI) in 52 sleeping healthy infants and toddlers, suggesting a role for N2MBW in this age-group.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftJournal of Applied Physiology
Vol/bind131
Udgave nummer1
Sider (fra-til)107-118
Antal sider12
ISSN0161-7567
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 1 jul. 2021

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