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IL-6 release from muscles during exercise is stimulated by lactate-dependent protease activity

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@article{fd5e11c656d04c09894a8c15af8fe24d,
title = "IL-6 release from muscles during exercise is stimulated by lactate-dependent protease activity",
abstract = "IL-6 is secreted from muscles to the circulation during high-intensity and long-duration exercise, where muscle-derived IL-6 works as an energy sensor to increase release of energy substrates from liver and adipose tissues. We investigated the mechanism involved in the exercise-mediated surge in IL-6 during exercise. Using interval-based cycling in healthy young men, swimming exercise in mice, and electrical stimulation of primary human muscle cells, we explored the role of lactate production in muscular IL-6 release during exercise. First, we observed a tight correlation between lactate production and IL-6 release during both strenuous bicycling and electrically stimulated muscle cell cultures. In mice, intramuscular injection of lactate mimicked the exercise-dependent release of IL-6, and pH buffering of lactate production during exercise attenuated IL-6 secretion. Next, we used in vivo bioimaging to demonstrate that intrinsic intramuscular proteases were activated in mice during swimming, and that blockade of protease activity blunted swimming-induced IL-6 release in mice. Last, intramuscular injection of the protease hyaluronidase resulted in dramatic increases in serum IL-6 in mice, and immunohistochemical analyses showed that intramuscular lactate and hyaluronidase injections led to release of IL-6-containing intramyocellular vesicles. We identified a pool of IL-6 located within vesicles of skeletal muscle fibers, which could be readily secreted upon protease activity. This protease-dependent release of IL-6 was initiated by lactate production, linking training intensity and lactate production to IL-6 release during strenuous exercise.",
author = "Pernille Hojman and Camilla Brolin and Nynne N{\o}rgaard-Christensen and Christine Dethlefsen and Britt Lauenborg and Olsen, {Cecilie K{\o}llner} and {\AA}bom, {Mette Marie} and Thomas Krag and Julie Gehl and Pedersen, {Bente Klarlund}",
year = "2019",
month = "5",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1152/ajpendo.00414.2018",
language = "English",
volume = "316",
pages = "E940--E947",
journal = "American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism",
issn = "0193-1849",
publisher = "American Physiological Society",
number = "5",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - IL-6 release from muscles during exercise is stimulated by lactate-dependent protease activity

AU - Hojman, Pernille

AU - Brolin, Camilla

AU - Nørgaard-Christensen, Nynne

AU - Dethlefsen, Christine

AU - Lauenborg, Britt

AU - Olsen, Cecilie Køllner

AU - Åbom, Mette Marie

AU - Krag, Thomas

AU - Gehl, Julie

AU - Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

PY - 2019/5/1

Y1 - 2019/5/1

N2 - IL-6 is secreted from muscles to the circulation during high-intensity and long-duration exercise, where muscle-derived IL-6 works as an energy sensor to increase release of energy substrates from liver and adipose tissues. We investigated the mechanism involved in the exercise-mediated surge in IL-6 during exercise. Using interval-based cycling in healthy young men, swimming exercise in mice, and electrical stimulation of primary human muscle cells, we explored the role of lactate production in muscular IL-6 release during exercise. First, we observed a tight correlation between lactate production and IL-6 release during both strenuous bicycling and electrically stimulated muscle cell cultures. In mice, intramuscular injection of lactate mimicked the exercise-dependent release of IL-6, and pH buffering of lactate production during exercise attenuated IL-6 secretion. Next, we used in vivo bioimaging to demonstrate that intrinsic intramuscular proteases were activated in mice during swimming, and that blockade of protease activity blunted swimming-induced IL-6 release in mice. Last, intramuscular injection of the protease hyaluronidase resulted in dramatic increases in serum IL-6 in mice, and immunohistochemical analyses showed that intramuscular lactate and hyaluronidase injections led to release of IL-6-containing intramyocellular vesicles. We identified a pool of IL-6 located within vesicles of skeletal muscle fibers, which could be readily secreted upon protease activity. This protease-dependent release of IL-6 was initiated by lactate production, linking training intensity and lactate production to IL-6 release during strenuous exercise.

AB - IL-6 is secreted from muscles to the circulation during high-intensity and long-duration exercise, where muscle-derived IL-6 works as an energy sensor to increase release of energy substrates from liver and adipose tissues. We investigated the mechanism involved in the exercise-mediated surge in IL-6 during exercise. Using interval-based cycling in healthy young men, swimming exercise in mice, and electrical stimulation of primary human muscle cells, we explored the role of lactate production in muscular IL-6 release during exercise. First, we observed a tight correlation between lactate production and IL-6 release during both strenuous bicycling and electrically stimulated muscle cell cultures. In mice, intramuscular injection of lactate mimicked the exercise-dependent release of IL-6, and pH buffering of lactate production during exercise attenuated IL-6 secretion. Next, we used in vivo bioimaging to demonstrate that intrinsic intramuscular proteases were activated in mice during swimming, and that blockade of protease activity blunted swimming-induced IL-6 release in mice. Last, intramuscular injection of the protease hyaluronidase resulted in dramatic increases in serum IL-6 in mice, and immunohistochemical analyses showed that intramuscular lactate and hyaluronidase injections led to release of IL-6-containing intramyocellular vesicles. We identified a pool of IL-6 located within vesicles of skeletal muscle fibers, which could be readily secreted upon protease activity. This protease-dependent release of IL-6 was initiated by lactate production, linking training intensity and lactate production to IL-6 release during strenuous exercise.

U2 - 10.1152/ajpendo.00414.2018

DO - 10.1152/ajpendo.00414.2018

M3 - Journal article

VL - 316

SP - E940-E947

JO - American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism

JF - American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism

SN - 0193-1849

IS - 5

ER -

ID: 58351064