The molecular circadian clock is an evolutionary adaptation to anticipate recurring changes in the environment and to coordinate variations in activity, metabolism and hormone secretion. Parathyroid hyperplasia in uremia is a significant clinical challenge. Here, we examined changes in the transcriptome of the murine parathyroid gland over 24 hours and found a rhythmic expression of parathyroid signature genes, such as Casr, Vdr, Fgfr1 and Gcm2. Overall, 1455 genes corresponding to 6.9% of all expressed genes had significant circadian rhythmicity. Biological pathway analysis indicated that the circadian clock system is essential for the regulation of parathyroid cell function. To study this, a novel mouse strain with parathyroid gland-specific knockdown of the core clock gene Bmal1 (PTHcre;Bmal1flox/flox) was created. Dampening of the parathyroid circadian clock rhythmicity was found in these knockdown mice, resulting in abrogated rhythmicity of regulators of parathyroid cell proliferation such as Sp1, Mafb, Gcm2 and Gata3, indicating circadian clock regulation of these genes. Furthermore, the knockdown resulted in downregulation of genes involved in mitochondrial function and synthesis of ATP. When superimposed by uremia, these PTHcre;Bmal1flox/flox mice had an increased parathyroid cell proliferative response, compared to wild type mice. Thus, our findings indicate a role of the internal parathyroid circadian clock in the development of parathyroid gland hyperplasia in uremia.