Hemorrhagic Transformation in Noncardioembolic Acute Ischemic Stroke: MRI Analysis From PACIFIC-STROKE

Chih-Hao Chen, Ashkan Shoamanesh, Pablo Colorado, Feryal Saad, Robin Lemmens, Gian Marco De Marchis, Valeria Caso, Lizhen Xu, Laura Heenan, Jaime Masjuan, Hanne Christensen, Stuart J Connolly, Pooja Khatri, Hardi Mundl, Robert G Hart, Eric E Smith

Abstract

BACKGROUND: In the phase 2 PACIFIC-STROKE trial (Proper Dosing and Safety of the Oral FXIa Inhibitor BAY 2433334 in Patients Following Acute Noncardioembolic Stroke), asundexian, an oral factor XIa inhibitor, did not increase the risk of hemorrhagic transformation (HT). In this secondary analysis, we aimed to investigate the frequency, types, and risk factors of HT on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of the PACIFIC-STROKE trial. Patients with mild-to-moderate acute noncardioembolic ischemic stroke were randomly assigned to asundexian or placebo plus guideline-based antiplatelet therapy. Brain MRIs were required at baseline (≤120 hours after stroke onset) and at 26 weeks or end-of-study. HT was defined using the Heidelberg classification and classified as early HT (identified on baseline MRI) or late HT (new HT by 26 weeks) based on iron-sensitive sequences. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to test factors that are associated with early HT and late HT, respectively.

RESULTS: Of 1745 patients with adequate baseline brain MRI (mean age, 67 years; mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, 2.8), early HT at baseline was detected in 497 (28.4%). Most were hemorrhagic infarctions (hemorrhagic infarction type 1: 15.2%; HI2: 12.7%) while a few were parenchymal hematomas (parenchymal hematoma type 1: 0.4%; parenchymal hematoma type 2: 0.2%). Early HT was more frequent with longer symptom onset-to-MRI interval. Male sex, diabetes, higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale large (>15 mm) infarct size, cortical involvement by infarct, higher number of acute infarcts, presence of chronic brain infarct, cerebral microbleed, and chronic cortical superficial siderosis were independently associated with early HT in the multivariable logistic regression model. Of 1507 with follow-up MRI, HT was seen in 642 (42.6%) overall, including 361 patients (23.9%) with late HT (new HT: 306; increased grade of baseline HT: 55). Higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, large infarct size, cortical involvement of infarct, and higher number of acute infarcts predicted late HT.

CONCLUSIONS: About 28% of patients with noncardioembolic stroke had early HT, and 24% had late HT detectable by MRI. Given the high frequency of HT on MRI, more research is needed on how it influences treatment decisions and outcomes.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftStroke
Vol/bind55
Udgave nummer6
Sider (fra-til)1477-1488
Antal sider12
ISSN0039-2499
DOI
StatusUdgivet - jun. 2024

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