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Gut microbiota profile and selected plasma metabolites in type 1 diabetes without and with stratification by albuminuria

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AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Abnormal gut microbiota and blood metabolome profiles have been reported both in children and adults with uncomplicated type 1 diabetes as well as in adults with type 1 diabetes and advanced stages of diabetic nephropathy. In this study we aimed to investigate the gut microbiota and a panel of targeted plasma metabolites in individuals with type 1 diabetes of long duration without and with different levels of albuminuria.

METHODS: In a cross-sectional study we included 161 individuals with type 1 diabetes and 50 healthy control individuals. Individuals with type 1 diabetes were categorised into three groups according to historically measured albuminuria: (1) normoalbuminuria (<3.39 mg/mmol); (2) microalbuminuria (3.39-33.79 mg/mmol); and (3) macroalbuminuria (≥33.90 mg/mmol). From faecal samples, the gut microbiota composition at genus level was characterised by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and in plasma a targeted profile of 31 metabolites was analysed with ultra HPLC coupled to MS/MS.

RESULTS: Study participants were aged 60 ± 11 years (mean ± SD) and 42% were women. The individuals with type 1 diabetes had had diabetes for a mean of 42 ± 15 years and had an eGFR of 75 ± 25 ml min-1 (1.73 m)-2. Measures of the gut microbial beta diversity differed significantly between healthy controls and individuals with type 1 diabetes, either with micro- or macroalbuminuria. Taxonomic analyses showed that 79 of 324 genera differed in relative abundance between individuals with type 1 diabetes and healthy controls and ten genera differed significantly among the three albuminuria groups with type 1 diabetes. For the measured plasma metabolites, 11 of 31 metabolites differed significantly between individuals with type 1 diabetes and healthy controls. When individuals with type 1 diabetes were stratified by the level of albuminuria, individuals with macroalbuminuria had higher plasma concentrations of indoxyl sulphate and L-citrulline than those with normo- or microalbuminuria and higher plasma levels of homocitrulline and L-kynurenine compared with individuals with normoalbuminuria. Whereas plasma concentrations of tryptophan were lower in individuals with macroalbuminuria compared with those with normoalbuminuria.

CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We demonstrate that individuals with type 1 diabetes of long duration are characterised by aberrant profiles of gut microbiota and plasma metabolites. Moreover, individuals with type 1 diabetes with initial stages of diabetic nephropathy show different gut microbiota and plasma metabolite profiles depending on the level of albuminuria. Graphical abstract.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftDiabetologia
Vol/bind63
Udgave nummer12
Sider (fra-til)2713-2724
Antal sider12
ISSN0012-186X
DOI
StatusUdgivet - dec. 2020

ID: 60929027