Global trends of pulmonary infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria: a systematic review

Victor Naestholt Dahl*, Martin Mølhave, Andreas Fløe, Prof Jakko van Ingen, Prof Thomas Schön, Prof Troels Lillebaek, Prof Aase Bengaard Andersen, Prof Christian Wejse

*Corresponding author af dette arbejde


OBJECTIVES: To describe the global trends of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection and disease.

METHODS: A systematic review of studies including culture-based NTM data over time. Studies reporting on pulmonary NTM infection and/or disease were included. Information on the use of guideline-based criteria for disease were collected, in which, infection is defined as the absence of symptoms and radiological findings compatible with NTM pulmonary disease. The trends of change for incidence/prevalence were evaluated using linear regressions, and the corresponding pooled estimates were calculated.

RESULTS: Most studies reported increasing pulmonary NTM infection (82.1%) and disease (66.7%) trends. The overall annual rate of change for NTM infection and disease per 100,000 persons/year was 4.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.2-4.8) and 4.1% (95% CI: 3.2-5.0), respectively. For absolute numbers of NTM infection and disease, the overall annual change was 2.0 (95% CI: 1.6-2.3) and 0.5 (95% CI: 0.3-0.7), respectively. An increasing trend was also seen for Mycobacterium avium complex infection (n = 15/19, 78.9%) and disease (n = 10/12, 83.9%) and for Mycobacterium abscessus complex (n = 15/23, 65.2%) infection (n = 11/17, 64.7%) but less so for disease (n = 2/8, 25.0%).

CONCLUSION: Our data indicate an overall increase in NTM worldwide for both infection and disease. The explanation to this phenomenon warrants further investigation.

TidsskriftInternational journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases
Sider (fra-til)120-131
Antal sider12
StatusUdgivet - 2022


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