Glial-neuronal interactions are impaired in the schizophrenia model of repeated MK801 exposure

Daniel Kondziella, Eiliv Brenner, Elvar M Eyjolfsson, Katarina Ryden Markinhuhta, Maria L Carlsson, Ursula Sonnewald

Abstract

Schizophrenia-mimicking compounds such as phencyclidine (PCP) and MK801 are antagonists at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and produce the whole spectrum of positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms. This is one of the most important pillars of the hypoglutamatergic hypothesis of schizophrenia. Since the synthesis of glutamate and GABA in neurons is closely connected to astrocyte metabolism, the study of astrocytic function is essential in this context. Dizocilpine-maleate (MK801) (0.5 mg/kg) was injected into rats every day for 6 days. The last dose was given together with [1-(13)C]glucose and [1,2-(13)C]acetate. Extracts from frontal, retrosplenial, and cingulate cortices (CRFC) and temporal lobes were examined by (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, high pressure liquid chromatography, and light microscopy. In CRFC, significant increases in the levels of glutamate, glutathione, and taurine were seen, whereas amounts and turnover of noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin were unchanged. Glutamate and glutamine, derived from [1,2-(13)C]acetate and thus astrocytes, were significantly decreased in CRFC as compared to controls. Labeling from [1-(13)C]glucose and thus mostly neuronal metabolism was affected in the same brain region with decreased labeling of glutamate and GABA. The present model mimics the increased glutamate/glutamine activity found in drug-naive patients with first episode schizophrenia. Moreover, the decreased labeling indicates the transition to lower glutamatergic function seen in chronic schizophrenia patients. The disturbance in astrocytic function and the glutamine-glutamate-GABA cycle are of significant importance and might add to the malfunction of the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical loop caused by NDMA receptor blockade.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftNeuropsychopharmacology
Vol/bind31
Udgave nummer9
Sider (fra-til)1880-7
Antal sider8
ISSN0893-133X
DOI
StatusUdgivet - sep. 2006
Udgivet eksterntJa

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