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Gender difference in breast tissue size in infancy: correlation with serum estradiol

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@article{7b2a9dbb3a3a47ceb4275149061b1888,
title = "Gender difference in breast tissue size in infancy: correlation with serum estradiol",
abstract = "Breast tissue in newborn infants is considered to be physiologic and mainly related to exposure to maternal hormones in utero or through breast-feeding. However, controversy exists as to whether breast tissue in later infancy is under the influence of endogenous hormones. Children at 2-4 mo of age have a surge of reproductive hormones, including estradiol, which may affect the mammary gland. In a prospective cohort study of 1126 healthy, 3-mo-old infants, breast tissue size and reproductive hormones were measured. We found that palpable breast tissue (diameter >or=3 mm) is a common physiologic condition present in 78.9{\%} of children, significantly more frequent (p < 0.001) and larger (p < 0.001) in girls than in boys. Girls had significantly higher median estradiol levels than boys (30.0 versus 21.0 pmol/L, p < 0.001). In a multiple regression model including breast tissue size given as quartiles as the dependent variable and weight for gestational age, subscapular skinfold, weight at 3 mo of age and serum estradiol as independent variables, a gender difference was shown. In girls, the estradiol level was positively (p < 0.03) correlated to breast quartile. In boys, no correlations were found. Whether the stimulation of the mammary gland in infancy represents a developmental window that is of biologic significance for breast development and pathology in adulthood remains to be defined.",
keywords = "Anthropometry, Breast, Cohort Studies, Estradiol, Female, Finland, Gestational Age, Humans, Infant, Male, Prospective Studies, Sex Characteristics, Skinfold Thickness, Testosterone, Comparative Study, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't",
author = "Schmidt, {Ida Maria} and Marla Chellakooty and Anne-Maarit Haavisto and Boisen, {Kirsten Arntz} and Damgaard, {Ida Norgil} and Ulla Steendahl and Jorma Toppari and Skakkebaek, {Niels Erik} and Main, {Katharina Maria}",
year = "2002",
month = "11",
doi = "10.1203/00006450-200211000-00012",
language = "English",
volume = "52",
pages = "682--6",
journal = "Pediatric Research",
issn = "0031-3998",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
number = "5",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Gender difference in breast tissue size in infancy

T2 - correlation with serum estradiol

AU - Schmidt, Ida Maria

AU - Chellakooty, Marla

AU - Haavisto, Anne-Maarit

AU - Boisen, Kirsten Arntz

AU - Damgaard, Ida Norgil

AU - Steendahl, Ulla

AU - Toppari, Jorma

AU - Skakkebaek, Niels Erik

AU - Main, Katharina Maria

PY - 2002/11

Y1 - 2002/11

N2 - Breast tissue in newborn infants is considered to be physiologic and mainly related to exposure to maternal hormones in utero or through breast-feeding. However, controversy exists as to whether breast tissue in later infancy is under the influence of endogenous hormones. Children at 2-4 mo of age have a surge of reproductive hormones, including estradiol, which may affect the mammary gland. In a prospective cohort study of 1126 healthy, 3-mo-old infants, breast tissue size and reproductive hormones were measured. We found that palpable breast tissue (diameter >or=3 mm) is a common physiologic condition present in 78.9% of children, significantly more frequent (p < 0.001) and larger (p < 0.001) in girls than in boys. Girls had significantly higher median estradiol levels than boys (30.0 versus 21.0 pmol/L, p < 0.001). In a multiple regression model including breast tissue size given as quartiles as the dependent variable and weight for gestational age, subscapular skinfold, weight at 3 mo of age and serum estradiol as independent variables, a gender difference was shown. In girls, the estradiol level was positively (p < 0.03) correlated to breast quartile. In boys, no correlations were found. Whether the stimulation of the mammary gland in infancy represents a developmental window that is of biologic significance for breast development and pathology in adulthood remains to be defined.

AB - Breast tissue in newborn infants is considered to be physiologic and mainly related to exposure to maternal hormones in utero or through breast-feeding. However, controversy exists as to whether breast tissue in later infancy is under the influence of endogenous hormones. Children at 2-4 mo of age have a surge of reproductive hormones, including estradiol, which may affect the mammary gland. In a prospective cohort study of 1126 healthy, 3-mo-old infants, breast tissue size and reproductive hormones were measured. We found that palpable breast tissue (diameter >or=3 mm) is a common physiologic condition present in 78.9% of children, significantly more frequent (p < 0.001) and larger (p < 0.001) in girls than in boys. Girls had significantly higher median estradiol levels than boys (30.0 versus 21.0 pmol/L, p < 0.001). In a multiple regression model including breast tissue size given as quartiles as the dependent variable and weight for gestational age, subscapular skinfold, weight at 3 mo of age and serum estradiol as independent variables, a gender difference was shown. In girls, the estradiol level was positively (p < 0.03) correlated to breast quartile. In boys, no correlations were found. Whether the stimulation of the mammary gland in infancy represents a developmental window that is of biologic significance for breast development and pathology in adulthood remains to be defined.

KW - Anthropometry

KW - Breast

KW - Cohort Studies

KW - Estradiol

KW - Female

KW - Finland

KW - Gestational Age

KW - Humans

KW - Infant

KW - Male

KW - Prospective Studies

KW - Sex Characteristics

KW - Skinfold Thickness

KW - Testosterone

KW - Comparative Study

KW - Journal Article

KW - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

U2 - 10.1203/00006450-200211000-00012

DO - 10.1203/00006450-200211000-00012

M3 - Journal article

VL - 52

SP - 682

EP - 686

JO - Pediatric Research

JF - Pediatric Research

SN - 0031-3998

IS - 5

ER -

ID: 51497654