BACKGROUND: The use of anti-D purified from human serum to prevent hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn due to D is well established. Owing to supply and safety reasons, however, an unlimited and non-plasma-derived source of antibodies for Rhesus prophylaxis is needed.
STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Recombinant human immunoglobulin G (IgG)1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, IgA1, and IgA2 anti-D with the same variable region were expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The effector functions of these antibodies were assessed by an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) assay and a chemiluminescence (CL) method for detection of respiratory burst.
RESULTS: In the ADCC assay, IgG1, IgG3, and IgA1 did the best and were as active as a currently used prophylactic polyclonal anti-D. IgG4 and IgA2 were moderately active, whereas IgG2 was not active. In the CL assay, IgG1 and IgG3 were active but much less so than a currently used prophylactic polyclonal anti-D. For some effector cell preparations, IgG4 was active in the CL assay, whereas IgG2, IgA1, and IgA2 were not. A mixture of IgG1 and IgG3 showed a synergistic effect in the CL assay and did as well as the prophylactic polyclonal anti-D in ADCC and CL. Mixtures of IgA1 and either IgG1 or IgG3 showed no synergistic effect.
CONCLUSION: A mixture of recombinant human IgG1 and IgG3 anti-D could be of value in future Rhesus prophylaxis.