First-line treatment with cephalosporins in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis provides poor antibiotic coverage

Srdan Novovic, Synne Semb, Henrik Olsen, Claus Moser, Inge Jenny Dahl Knudsen, Christian Homann

33 Citationer (Scopus)

Abstract

Abstract Objective. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a common infection in cirrhosis, associated with a high mortality. Third-generation cephalosporins are recommended as first-line treatment. The aim was to evaluate the epidemiology of microbiological ascitic fluid findings and antimicrobial resistance in Denmark. Material and Methods. All patients with cirrhosis and a positive ascitic fluid culture, at three university hospitals in the Copenhagen area during a 7-year period, were retrospectively evaluated. Patients with apparent secondary peritonitis were excluded from the study. Results. One hundred and forty cases with 187 microbiological isolates were identified. The findings were: Gram-positive cocci, n = 86 (45.9%); Enterobacteriaceae, n = 59 (31.7%), with Escherichia coli identified in 31 cases; anaerobes, n = 14 (7.5%); yeast, n = 12 (6.4%); and cutaneous flora, n = 15 (8.0%). One case of Listeria monocytogenes was identified (0.5%). Overall antibiotic coverage was 57% for cephalosporins, 73% for piperacillin-tazobactam, and 72% for meropenem. Mortality rates in patients with isolates susceptible or resistant to the initial antibiotic treatment at 30 days follow-up were 35% and 55%, respectively (p = 0.017, Log-rank test). Conclusion. Almost half of the isolates were Gram-positive cocci, and as the overall antibiotic coverage with a cephalosporin was only 57%, and survival significantly dependent on whether the microbial etiology was susceptible to initial antibiotic treatment or not, a change of standard empiric antibiotic regime should be considered. Piperacillin-tazobactam could be a favorable choice.
OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftScandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Vol/bind47
Udgave nummer2
Sider (fra-til)212-6
Antal sider5
ISSN0036-5521
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 2012

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