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Factors associated with ocular surface disease and severity in adults with atopic dermatitis: a nationwide survey

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BACKGROUND: Ocular surface diseases (OSDs), including conjunctivitis and blepharitis, are common in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients, but the magnitude and patient characteristics are unclear.

OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of OSDs in adults with AD and identify patient characteristics and risk factors.

METHODS: We designed a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey and sent it via a secure public mail to all adult Danes with a hospital diagnosis of AD (ICD-10 code L20.x) registered in the National Patient Register (n = 16 718) between 2000 and 2019 and 7044 (42%) participated. Primary outcomes were OSDs and severity according to Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI). Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using logistic regression models.

RESULTS: Respondents were mostly females and middle-aged (67.4%, mean [SD] age, 39.0 [15.5] years). Based on Patient-Oriented SCORing Atopic Dermatitis 49% had mild AD, 35% moderate, 10% severe and in 6% AD was inactive; 44.3% reported physician-diagnosed asthma bronchiale and 55.8% rhinitis. The lifetime prevalence of OSDs was 66.6% for conjunctivitis, 63.5% for hordeolum, 11.0% for blepharitis, 9.7% for keratitis, 2.0% for pterygium, 1.5% for symblepharon, 1.1% for keratoconus and 12.7% reported current conjunctivitis. Factors associated with lifetime occurrence of conjunctivitis included mild, moderate, and severe AD (aOR = 1.48 [95% CI, 1.02-2.14], aOR = 1.73 [95% CI, 1.19-2.53], aOR = 2.17 [95% CI, 1.42-3.21]), asthma bronchiale and rhinitis (aOR = 1.76 [95% CI, 1.49-2.07]), childhood-onset of AD (aOR = 1.34 [95% CI, 1.16-1.56]) and systemic AD treatment (aOR = 1.27 [95% CI, 1.08-1.50]). Use of soft and hard contact lenses (aOR = 2.15 [95% CI, 1.65-2.80], aOR = 3.35 [95% CI, 1.62-6.92]) were associated with lifetime occurrence of keratitis. Moderate and severe AD, asthma bronchiale and rhinitis were also associated with a higher OSDI level.

CONCLUSIONS: This study identified important patient factors associated with OSDs. Clinicians should be attentive of ocular signs and symptoms in AD patients and ask about these.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftJournal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
Vol/bind36
Udgave nummer4
Sider (fra-til)592-601
Antal sider10
ISSN0926-9959
DOI
StatusUdgivet - apr. 2022

Bibliografisk note

© 2021 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

ID: 69996681