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Region Hovedstaden - en del af Københavns Universitetshospital
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Extracellular purines and bone homeostasis

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftReviewpeer review

DOI

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Maintenance of a healthy skeleton is highly dependent on an intricate regulation of bone metabolism, as changes in the balance between bone formation and bone resorption leads to bone loss, bone fragility and ultimately bone fractures. During the last three decades it has become increasingly evident that physiological release of purines in the extracellular space is imperative for bone homeostasis and is orchestrated via the network of purinoceptors. Adenosine derivatives are released locally in the skeleton either by the bone forming osteoblasts or the bone degrading osteoclasts actioned directly by processes like mechanical loading and indirectly by systemic hormones. Adenosine derivatives directly affect the bone cells by their action on the membranal receptors or have co-stimulatory actions with bone active hormones such as parathyroid hormone or the gut hormones. Any deviations leading to increased levels of extracellular adenosine derivatives in the bone tissue such as in pathologic situations, trigger complex pathways with opposing effects on tissue health as presented by studies involving a range of model organisms. Pathological conditions where skeletal purinergic signaling is affected are following tissue injury like microdamage and macroscopic fractures; and during inflammatory processes where nucleotides and nucleosides play an important part in the pathophysiological skeletal response. Moreover, adenosine derivatives also play an important role in the interaction between malignant cells and bone cells in several types of cancers involving the skeleton, such as but not limited to multiple myeloma and bone osteolysis. Much knowledge has been gained over the last decades. The net- resulting phenotype of adenosine derivatives in bone (including the ratio of ATP to Adenosine) is highly dependent on CD39 and CD73 enzymes together with the expression and activity of the specific receptors. Thus, each component is important in the physiological and pathophysiological processes in bone. Promising perspectives await in the future in treating skeletal disorders with medications targeting the individual components of the purinergic signaling pathway.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
Artikelnummer114425
TidsskriftBiochemical Pharmacology
Vol/bind187
ISSN0006-2952
DOI
StatusUdgivet - maj 2021

ID: 65656691