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Exposure to 15 phthalates and two substitutes (DEHTP and DINCH) assessed in trios of infants and their parents as well as longitudinally in infants exclusively breastfed and after the introduction of a mixed diet

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OBJECTIVE: Several phthalates have been restricted/banned due to their adverse endocrine disrupting properties. The use of other phthalates and substitutes has increased. Here we examine the current exposure to phthalates in family trios comprised of infants and their parents and in infants exclusive breastfed and following introduction to a mixed diet.

METHODS: Metabolites of 15 phthalates and two substitutes, di(2-ethylhexyl)-teraphthalate (DEHTP) and diisononyl-cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH), were measured in urine samples collected from >100 infants and their parents and in paired urine samples collected from 67 infants, while they were exclusively breastfed and when they got mixed diet.

RESULTS: Among infants and their parents, metabolites of nine out of 15 phthalates and both substitutes were detected in >74% of all samples. Estimated daily intake (DI) calculated as µg/kg/day, showed similar exposure levels among infants and their parents for several of the substances, and infants were more exposed to DEHTP than their mothers. Significantly higher estimated DIs were observed for some low-molecular phthalates in infants exclusively breastfed. In contrast, comparable estimated DIs were observed for many other phthalates and DEHTP regardless of feeding status. For most of the substances, the within-family variation, was lower than the between-family variation. Likewise, the within-infant variation on exclusively breast vs. mixed diet was lower than the between-infant variation. Independent of food status, some infants were concurrently exposed to almost all the measured phthalates and substitutes in higher amounts than others.

CONCLUSION: Surprisingly, irrespective of diet status infants were exposed to several phthalates and substitutes some of which have been regulated for years. Exposure patterns and levels were similar in infants and their parents. Importantly, risk assessment based on new refined reference doses (RfD-AA) exceeded the safety level for anti-androgenic effects in a number of infants and parents, which is of concern.

TidsskriftEnvironment International
Sider (fra-til)107107
StatusUdgivet - mar. 2022

Bibliografisk note

Copyright © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

ID: 79467841