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Epstein-Barr virus-encoded BILF1 is a constitutively active G protein-coupled receptor

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Both beta- and gammaherpesviruses encode G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with unique pharmacological phenotypes and important biological functions. An example is ORF74, the gamma2-herpesvirus Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-encoded GPCR, which is highly constitutively active and considered the key oncogene in Kaposi's sarcoma pathogenesis. In contrast, the current annotation of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome does not reveal any GPCR homolog encoded by this human oncogenic gamma1-herpesvirus. However, by employing bioinformatics, we recognized that the previously established EBV open reading frame BILF1 indeed encodes a GPCR. Additionally, BILF1 is a member of a new family of related GPCRs exclusively encoded by gamma1-herpesviruses. Expression of hemagglutinin-tagged BILF1 in the HEK293 epithelial cell line revealed that BILF1 is expressed as an approximately 50-kDa glycosylated protein. Immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy revealed that BILF1 localizes predominantly to the plasma membrane, similar to the localization of KSHV ORF74. Using chimeric G proteins, we found that human and rhesus EBV-encoded BILF1 are highly potent constitutively active receptors, activating Galphai. Furthermore, BILF1 is able to inhibit forskolin-triggered CREB activation via stimulation of endogenous G proteins in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner, verifying that BILF1 signals constitutively through Galphai. We suggest that EBV may use BILF1 to regulate Galphai-activated pathways during viral lytic replication, thereby affecting disease progression.
OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftJournal of Virology
Vol/bind79
Udgave nummer1
Sider (fra-til)536-46
Antal sider11
ISSN0022-538X
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 2005

ID: 32564305