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Entero-pancreatic hormone secretion, gastric emptying, and glucose absorption after frequently sampled meal tests

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CONTEXT: Entero-pancreatic hormone secretion has been reported during the pre-absorptive cephalic and gastric meal phases, but never with a blood sampling frequency providing a temporal resolution that allows close scrutiny and correlations with gastric emptying and glucose absorption.

OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that entero-pancreatic hormone secretion after nutrient ingestion would be rapid and correlate with gastric emptying and glucose absorption.

METHODS: During 2 visits in a clinical research facility, 10 healthy young men ingested a 75-g glucose drink (OG) and a liquid mixed meal (LMM) (t = 0-2 minutes) on separate days. Acetaminophen and 3-O-methyl-D-glucopyranose (3-OMG) were added to the drinks to evaluate gastric emptying and glucose absorption, respectively. Arterialized venous blood was sampled (t = -30, -20, -18, -16, -14, -12, -10, -8, -6, -4, -2, 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 30 minutes). Plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), gastrin, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), 3-OMG, and glucose were measured, as were serum insulin, C-peptide, and acetaminophen.

RESULTS: Acetaminophen increased 8 minutes after OG (P < 0.001) and LMM (P < 0.05); 3-OMG, 8 minutes after LMM (P < 0.0001), 10 minutes after OG (P = 0.04); PP, 4 minutes after LMM (P < 0.03); gastrin, 6 minutes after LMM (P < 0.003) and OG (P < 0.003); CCK, 6 minutes after LMM (P = 0.0001); GIP, 8 minutes after OG (P < 0.05) and LMM (P < 0.03); glucose, 8 minutes after OG (P < 0.001); 12 minutes after LMM (P < 0.02); GLP-1, 12 minutes after OG (P < 0.01), 10 minutes after LMM (P < 0.01); insulin, 12 minutes after LMM (P = 0.02) and OG (P = 0.002); C-peptide, 12 minutes after OG (P = 0.002) and LMM (P = 0.04).

CONCLUSION: Early postprandial hormone responses show characteristic differences with regard to timing and amplitude but also great individual differences. This should be considered when interpreting mean responses and designing study protocols.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftThe Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
Vol/bind107
Udgave nummer1
Sider (fra-til)e188-e204
ISSN0021-972X
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 1 jan. 2022

Bibliografisk note

© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Endocrine Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

ID: 69921063