Electrolyte and Acid-Base Disturbances in Emergency High-Risk Abdominal Surgery, a Retrospective Study

Mirjana Cihoric*, Henrik Kehlet, Morten Laksáfoss Lauritsen, Jakob Højlund, Nicolai Bang Foss

*Corresponding author af dette arbejde

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing emergency high-risk abdominal surgery potentially suffer from both systemic dehydration and hypovolaemia. Data on the prevalence and clinical impact of electrolyte disturbances in this patient group, specifically the differences in patients with intestinal obstruction (IO) versus perforated viscus (PV) are lacking.

METHODS: Adult patients undergoing emergency high-risk abdominal surgery in a standardized perioperative pathway were included in this retrospective single-center cohort study. Electrolytes and arterial blood gas analysis were measured during the early perioperative period. Prevalence and clinical impact of electrolyte disturbances were assessed.

RESULTS: A total of 354 patients were included in the study. Preoperative alkalemia dominated preoperatively, significantly more prevalent in IO (45 vs. 32%, p < .001), while acidosis was most pronounced postoperatively in PV (49 vs. 28%, p < .0001). Preoperative hypochloraemia and hypokalemia were more frequent in the IO (34 vs. 20% and 37 vs. 25%, respectively). Hyponatremia was highly prevalent in both IO and PV. Pre- and postoperative hypochloremia were independently associated with 30-day postoperative morbidity and mortality in patients with IO (OR 2.87 (1.35, 6.23) p = 0.006, OR 6.86 (1.71, 32.2) p = 0.009, respectively). Hypochloremic patients presented with reduced long-term survival as compared with the normo- and hyperchloremic patients (p < 0.05). Neither plasma sodium nor potassium showed a significant association with outcome.

CONCLUSION: These observations suggest that acute high-risk abdominal patients have frequent preoperative alkalosis shifting to postoperative acidosis. Both pre- and postoperative hypochloremia were independently associated with both impaired short- and long-term outcome in patients with intestinal obstruction, with potential implications for the choice of resuscitations fluids.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftWorld Journal of Surgery
Vol/bind46
Udgave nummer6
Sider (fra-til)1325-1335
Antal sider11
ISSN0364-2313
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 2022

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