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Effects of active commuting and leisure-time exercise on appetite in individuals with overweight and obesity

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  • Jonas Salling Quist
  • Martin Bæk Blond
  • Anne Sofie Gram
  • Carina Bjørnskov Steenholt
  • Charlotte Janus
  • Jens Juul Holst
  • Jens F Rehfeld
  • Anders Sjödin
  • Bente Stallknecht
  • Mads Rosenkilde
Vis graf over relationer

Acute exercise is associated with a transient suppression of appetite. The effects of regular exercise on appetite are not well understood. We aimed to determine the effects of active commuting and leisure-time exercise on appetite. One hundred thirty physically inactive women and men (20-45 yr) with overweight and obesity were randomized to 6 mo of habitual lifestyle (CON, n = 18), active commuting (BIKE, n = 35), or leisure-time exercise of moderate [MOD, 50% peak oxygen uptake (V̇o2peak)-reserve, n = 39] or vigorous (VIG, 70% V̇o2peak-reserve, n = 38) intensity. Appetite ratings, acylated ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and glucagon were assessed in the basal state and in response to meal and exercise challenges at baseline and 3 and 6 mo. Ad libitum energy intake was determined during test meals. Data from 90 participants (per protocol) were available, and results are comparisons with CON. At 3 mo, ad libitum energy intake was lower in VIG (-22%, P < 0.01), basal glucagon was lower in BIKE ( P < 0.05) and VIG ( P = 0.01), and postprandial ratings of prospective food consumption were lower in MOD ( P = 0.02) and VIG ( P < 0.001). In VIG, ratings of hunger ( P = 0.01) and prospective food consumption ( P = 0.03) were lower after acute exercise at 3 mo. At 6 mo, basal and postprandial GLP-1 were higher ( P ≤ 0.04) whereas postexercise PYY was lower ( P = 0.03) in VIG and postexercise CCK was lower in BIKE ( P = 0.03). Vigorous-intensity exercise training leads to a transient suppression of energy intake and subjective appetite (3 mo) but a more long-term increase in basal and postprandial GLP-1 (6 mo) in individuals with overweight and obesity. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This is the first randomized controlled trial, to our knowledge, investigating long-term effects of exercise domain and intensity on subjective and hormonal markers of appetite and ad libitum energy intake in individuals with overweight and obesity. Appetite was assessed in response to meal and exercise challenges at baseline and at 3 and 6 mo. Anorexigenic effects of exercise vary with the duration of intervention and are restricted to regular leisure-time exercise of vigorous intensity in individuals with overweight and obesity.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftJournal of Applied Physiology
Vol/bind126
Udgave nummer4
Sider (fra-til)941-951
Antal sider11
ISSN0161-7567
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 1 apr. 2019

ID: 57231148