AIM: To evaluate the effects of the primary human bile acid, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), and the bile acid sequestrant (BAS) colesevelam, instilled into the stomach, on plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, cholecystokinin and gastrin, as well as on gastric emptying, gallbladder volume, appetite and food intake.
METHODS: On four separate days, nine patients with type 2 diabetes, and 10 matched healthy control subjects received bolus instillations of (i) CDCA, (ii) colesevelam, (iii) CDCA + colesevelam or (iv) placebo. At baseline and for 180 min after instillation, blood was sampled.
RESULTS: In both the type 2 diabetes group and the healthy control group, CDCA elicited an increase in GLP-1 levels compared with colesevelam, CDCA + colesevelam and placebo, respectively (p < 0.05). The interventions did not affect plasma glucose, insulin or C-peptide concentrations in any of the groups. CDCA elicited a small increase in plasma insulin : glucose ratio compared with colesevelam, CDCA + colesevelam and placebo in both groups. Compared with colesevelam, CDCA + colesevelam and placebo, respectively, CDCA increased glucagon and delayed gastric emptying in both groups.
CONCLUSIONS: CDCA increased GLP-1 and glucagon secretion, and delayed gastric emptying. We speculate that bile acid-induced activation of TGR5 on L cells increases GLP-1 secretion, which, in turn, may result in amplification of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Furthermore our data suggest that colesevelam does not have an acute effect on GLP-1 secretion in humans.