During the past decade it has been demonstrated that insulin, apart from its effects on metabolism and ion fluxes, has acute effects on the cardiovascular system and capillary permeability. Intravenous infusion of insulin in doses which increase plasma insulin to physiological levels, induced vascular dilatation and increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity during a euglycaemic glucose clamp. During similar conditions insulin increased the transcapillary escape rate of albumin and reduced plasma volume. Insulin has also an indirect effect on vascular permeability during hypoglycaemia, which is mediated by the increase in plasma adrenaline. Adrenaline infusion increased haematocrit and decreased plasma volume and intravascular albumin mass. In contrast to insulin adrenaline did not increase the transcapillary escape rate of albumin. Total autonomic blockade during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia abolished the increase in haematocrit, but did not influence the decrease in plasma volume and the increase in the transcapillary escape rate of albumin. Insulin administration may also increase urinary albumin excretion, and this effect was observed during a euglycaemic clamp. The mechanism of the increase in capillary permeability after insulin has not been elucidated. A number of morphological studies indicate that insulin may have effects on endothelial cell morphology and paraendothelial cell permeability. These results indicate that insulin, apart from its effect on peripheral blood flow, may play a role in a normal transfer of macromolecules from the blood to the extracellular space after food intake. This process may be greatly disturbed in insulin-dependent diabetic patients.
|Status||Udgivet - feb. 1992|