Direct visualizing of paracetamol immediate release tablet disintegration in vivo and in vitro

Freja Fredholt, Camilla Di Meo, Stine Sloth, Anette Müllertz, Ragna Berthelsen*

*Corresponding author af dette arbejde
2 Citationer (Scopus)


The purpose of the present study was to study tablet disintegration by direct visualization, in vivo and in vitro. Based on literature data, a standard conventional paracetamol (CP) tablet, Panodil®, and a rapidly absorbed paracetamol (RP) tablet, Panodil® Zapp, were chosen as model systems to study tablet disintegration in the human stomach. Based on the obtained in vivo results, an in vitro disintegration method was designed to reproduce the visualized disintegration process occurring in the human stomach. For the clinical study, CP and RP tablets fastened to digital endoscopic camera capsules were administered to fasted human volunteers (n = 4). The disintegration time and process were visualized by the real time video recordings, using the endoscopic camera capsule. The average disintegration time was found to be 26 ± 13 min and 10 ± 7 min, for CP (n = 4) and RP (n = 4) tablets, respectively. It was possible to reproduce the in vivo disintegration data in vitro using a USP 2 dissolution apparatus with 250 mL of viscous Fasted State Simulated Gastric Fluid (vFaSSGF*), simulating the rheological profile of human fasted state gastric fluid following administration of a glass of water. The viscosity of the simulated fasted state gastric fluid was found to have a large impact on the disintegration time of the tested immediate release tablets. Therefore, it is recommended to mimic gastric fluid viscosity during in vitro tablet disintegration studies.

TidsskriftEuropean Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Sider (fra-til)63-70
Antal sider8
StatusUdgivet - nov. 2022


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