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E-pub ahead of print

Differentiating Depression and ADHD without Depression in Adults with Processing-Speed Measures

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OBJECTIVE: We evaluated processing-speed and shift-cost measures in adults with depression or ADHD and monitored the effects of treatment. We hypothesized that cognitive-speed and shift-cost measures might differentiate diagnostic groups.

METHODS: Colour, form, and colour-form stimuli were used to measured naming times. The shift cost (s) were calculated as colour-form naming time minus the sum of colour and form naming times. Measurements were done at baseline and endpoint for 42 adults with depression and 42 with ADHD without depression. Patients with depression were treated with Transcranial Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields and patients with ADHD with methylphenidate IR.

RESULTS: During depression treatment, reductions in naming times were recorded weekly. One-way ANOVA indicated statistical between-group differences with effect sizes in the medium range for form and colour-form. In both groups, naming times were longer before than after treatment. For the ADHD group, shift costs exceeded the average-normal range at baseline but were in the average-normal range after stabilization with stimulant medication. For the depression group, shift costs were in the average-normal range at baseline and after treatment. Baseline colour-form naming times predicted reductions in naming times for both groups with the largest effect size and index of forecasting efficiency for the ADHD group.

CONCLUSIONS: The cognitive-processing speed (colour-form) and shift-cost measures before treatment proved most sensitive in differentiating patients with depression and ADHD. Reductions in naming times for the depression group were suggested to reflect improved psycho-motor skills rather than improved cognitive control.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftActa Neuropsychiatrica
Sider (fra-til)1-30
Antal sider30
ISSN1601-5215
DOI
StatusE-pub ahead of print - 27 apr. 2020

ID: 59922056