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Dietary trans-fatty acid intake in relation to cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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@article{fcbba7c06fc34d5888153a05a35306cf,
title = "Dietary trans-fatty acid intake in relation to cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis",
abstract = "CONTEXT: Apart from ruminant fat, trans-fatty acids are produced during the partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils, (eg, in the production of ultraprocessed foods). Harmful cardiovascular effects of trans-fatty acids are already proven, but the link with cancer risk has not yet been summarized.OBJECTIVE: A systematic review (following PRISMA guidelines) - including observational studies on the association of trans-fatty acid intake with any cancer risk - was conducted, with no limitations on population types.DATA SOURCES: The electronic databases PubMed and Embase were searched to identify relevant studies.DATA EXTRACTION: This systematic review included 46 articles. Quality was assessed via the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Meta-analyses were conducted if at least 4 articles exploring the same transfat-cancer pairings were found.DATA ANALYSIS: Nineteen cancer types have been researched in cohort and case-control studies on trans-fatty acids, with breast cancer (n = 17), prostate cancer (n = 11), and colorectal cancer (n = 9) as the most researched. The meta-analyses on total trans-fat showed a significant positive association for prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR] 1.49; 95%CI, 1.13-1.95) and colorectal cancer (OR 1.26; 95%CI, 1.08-1.46) but not for breast cancer (OR 1.12; 95%CI, 0.99-1.26), ovarian cancer (OR 1.10; 95%CI, 0.94-1.28), or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (OR 1.32; 95%CI, 0.99-1.76). Results were dependent on the fatty acid subtype, with even cancer-protective associations for some partially hydrogenated vegetable oils. Enhancing moderators in the positive transfat-cancer relation were gender (direction was cancer-site specific), European ancestry, menopause, older age, and overweight.CONCLUSION: Despite heterogeneity, higher risk of prostate and colorectal cancer by high consumption of trans-fatty acids was found. Future studies need methodological improvements (eg, using long-term follow-up cancer data and intake biomarkers). Owing to the lack of studies testing trans-fatty acid subtypes in standardized ways, it is not clear which subtypes (eg, ruminant sources) are more carcinogenic.SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration no. CRD42018105899.",
keywords = "case-control studies, cohort studies, diet, neoplasms, primary prevention, trans fatty acids",
author = "Nathalie Michels and Specht, {Ina Olmer} and Heitmann, {Berit L} and Veronique Chaj{\`e}s and Inge Huybrechts",
note = "{\textcopyright} The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.",
year = "2021",
month = jun,
day = "4",
doi = "10.1093/nutrit/nuaa061",
language = "English",
volume = "79",
pages = "758--776",
journal = "Nutrition Reviews",
issn = "0029-6643",
publisher = "International Life Sciences Institute",
number = "7",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Dietary trans-fatty acid intake in relation to cancer risk

T2 - a systematic review and meta-analysis

AU - Michels, Nathalie

AU - Specht, Ina Olmer

AU - Heitmann, Berit L

AU - Chajès, Veronique

AU - Huybrechts, Inge

N1 - © The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

PY - 2021/6/4

Y1 - 2021/6/4

N2 - CONTEXT: Apart from ruminant fat, trans-fatty acids are produced during the partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils, (eg, in the production of ultraprocessed foods). Harmful cardiovascular effects of trans-fatty acids are already proven, but the link with cancer risk has not yet been summarized.OBJECTIVE: A systematic review (following PRISMA guidelines) - including observational studies on the association of trans-fatty acid intake with any cancer risk - was conducted, with no limitations on population types.DATA SOURCES: The electronic databases PubMed and Embase were searched to identify relevant studies.DATA EXTRACTION: This systematic review included 46 articles. Quality was assessed via the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Meta-analyses were conducted if at least 4 articles exploring the same transfat-cancer pairings were found.DATA ANALYSIS: Nineteen cancer types have been researched in cohort and case-control studies on trans-fatty acids, with breast cancer (n = 17), prostate cancer (n = 11), and colorectal cancer (n = 9) as the most researched. The meta-analyses on total trans-fat showed a significant positive association for prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR] 1.49; 95%CI, 1.13-1.95) and colorectal cancer (OR 1.26; 95%CI, 1.08-1.46) but not for breast cancer (OR 1.12; 95%CI, 0.99-1.26), ovarian cancer (OR 1.10; 95%CI, 0.94-1.28), or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (OR 1.32; 95%CI, 0.99-1.76). Results were dependent on the fatty acid subtype, with even cancer-protective associations for some partially hydrogenated vegetable oils. Enhancing moderators in the positive transfat-cancer relation were gender (direction was cancer-site specific), European ancestry, menopause, older age, and overweight.CONCLUSION: Despite heterogeneity, higher risk of prostate and colorectal cancer by high consumption of trans-fatty acids was found. Future studies need methodological improvements (eg, using long-term follow-up cancer data and intake biomarkers). Owing to the lack of studies testing trans-fatty acid subtypes in standardized ways, it is not clear which subtypes (eg, ruminant sources) are more carcinogenic.SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration no. CRD42018105899.

AB - CONTEXT: Apart from ruminant fat, trans-fatty acids are produced during the partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils, (eg, in the production of ultraprocessed foods). Harmful cardiovascular effects of trans-fatty acids are already proven, but the link with cancer risk has not yet been summarized.OBJECTIVE: A systematic review (following PRISMA guidelines) - including observational studies on the association of trans-fatty acid intake with any cancer risk - was conducted, with no limitations on population types.DATA SOURCES: The electronic databases PubMed and Embase were searched to identify relevant studies.DATA EXTRACTION: This systematic review included 46 articles. Quality was assessed via the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Meta-analyses were conducted if at least 4 articles exploring the same transfat-cancer pairings were found.DATA ANALYSIS: Nineteen cancer types have been researched in cohort and case-control studies on trans-fatty acids, with breast cancer (n = 17), prostate cancer (n = 11), and colorectal cancer (n = 9) as the most researched. The meta-analyses on total trans-fat showed a significant positive association for prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR] 1.49; 95%CI, 1.13-1.95) and colorectal cancer (OR 1.26; 95%CI, 1.08-1.46) but not for breast cancer (OR 1.12; 95%CI, 0.99-1.26), ovarian cancer (OR 1.10; 95%CI, 0.94-1.28), or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (OR 1.32; 95%CI, 0.99-1.76). Results were dependent on the fatty acid subtype, with even cancer-protective associations for some partially hydrogenated vegetable oils. Enhancing moderators in the positive transfat-cancer relation were gender (direction was cancer-site specific), European ancestry, menopause, older age, and overweight.CONCLUSION: Despite heterogeneity, higher risk of prostate and colorectal cancer by high consumption of trans-fatty acids was found. Future studies need methodological improvements (eg, using long-term follow-up cancer data and intake biomarkers). Owing to the lack of studies testing trans-fatty acid subtypes in standardized ways, it is not clear which subtypes (eg, ruminant sources) are more carcinogenic.SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration no. CRD42018105899.

KW - case-control studies

KW - cohort studies

KW - diet

KW - neoplasms

KW - primary prevention

KW - trans fatty acids

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85107964672&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1093/nutrit/nuaa061

DO - 10.1093/nutrit/nuaa061

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 34104953

VL - 79

SP - 758

EP - 776

JO - Nutrition Reviews

JF - Nutrition Reviews

SN - 0029-6643

IS - 7

ER -

ID: 67547740