BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with several immune-mediated disorders. However, the risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in people living with HIV (PLWH) remains unclear. We aimed to assess the risk of IBD among PLWH using a nationwide, population-based Danish cohort and to validate findings in a large American insurance-based database.
METHODS: Using Danish registries (1983-2018), we identified 8995 PLWH and age- and sex-matched them to 449,750 HIV-negative individuals. Cox regression analysis was undertaken to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for IBD diagnosis. Results were stratified by sex, age, and year of HIV diagnosis. Using an American insurance-based cohort, Explorys (1999-2018), we assessed the prevalence odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI of IBD diagnosis in PLWH compared with HIV-negative individuals.
RESULTS: IBD diagnosis among PLWH in Denmark was increased (HR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.78-2.83) compared with matched HIV-negative individuals. This was seen for both Crohn's disease (HR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.47-3.44) and ulcerative colitis (HR: 2.24, 95% CI: 1.70-2.96) and in male (HR: 2.75, 95% CI: 2.15-3.52) but not female (HR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.48-1.79) PLWH. Explorys analysis also showed an increased odds of IBD diagnoses among PLWH (OR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.35-1.49).
CONCLUSION: This study finds an increased risk of IBD diagnosis among PLWH in both a Danish and US cohort, highlighting a need to consider IBD in PLWH with new-onset gastrointestinal symptoms. Further research into the role of antiretroviral therapy in this relationship is required.