Design and methodology of the PRIMETIME 1 cohort study: PRecIsion MEdicine based on kidney TIssue Molecular interrogation in diabetic nEphropathy

Karina Haar Jensen, Frederik Persson, Ditte Hansen, Iain Bressendorff, Marie Moller, Peter Rossing, Eva Gravesen, Vanja Kosjerina, Dorte Vistisen, Rikke Borg


Lay Summary Kidney disease is a severe and common complication of diabetes. To improve individualized treatment for kidney disease in diabetes, there persists a need to advance knowledge concerning diagnostic accuracy, disease course, secondary diseases and prognostic markers within this field. Therefore, we established the PRIMETIME 1 (PRecIsion MEdicine based on kidney TIssue Molecular interrogation in diabetic nEphropathy) study. The study is a large Danish national study with comprehensive national registry data on all individuals with diabetes who have undergone a kidney biopsy. This paper describes the rationale, design and methodology of creating this cohort, and demonstrates a novel method of classifying kidney disease based on national registry data. With the PRIMETIME 1 cohort study, we have established a unique opportunity to study biopsy-proven kidney disease in diabetes in the future. Background Clinical features of diabetic kidney disease alone cannot differentiate between the histopathology that defines diabetic nephropathy (DN) and non-diabetic nephropathy (NDN). A kidney biopsy is necessary to make the definitive diagnosis of DN. However, there is no consensus on when to perform a kidney biopsy in individuals with diabetes and kidney disease. Furthermore, the implications of NDN versus DN for management, morbidity and kidney prognosis are unclear. To address the gap in knowledge, we aimed to create a national retrospective cohort of people with diabetes and a performed kidney biopsy. Methods Adults diagnosed with diabetes in Denmark between 1996 and 2020 who had a kidney biopsy performed were included. The cohort was established by linking a nationwide diabetes registry with the Danish Pathology Registry. Data from 11 national registries and databases were compiled. The type of kidney disease was classified using a three-step analysis of Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine codes reported in relation to the histopathological examinations of kidney tissue. The final cohort and classification of kidney disease was as follows: out of 485 989 individuals with diabetes 2586 were included, 2259 of whom had type 2 diabetes. We were able to classify 599 (26.5 with DN, 703 (31.1 with NDN and 165 (7.3 with mixed disease in individuals with type 2 diabetes. In individuals with type 1 diabetes, 132 (40.4 had DN, 73 (22.3 NDN and 39 (11.9 mixed disease. The remaining could not be classified or had normal histology. The overall median (Q1-Q3) follow-up time was 3.8 (1.6-7.2) years. Conclusions This cohort is a novel platform based on high-quality registry data for important longitudinal studies of the impact of kidney disease diagnosis on prognosis. With regular updates of data from the Danish registries, the presented follow-up will increase over time and is only limited by emigration or death.
TidsskriftClinical kidney journal
Udgave nummer12
Sider (fra-til)2482-2492
Antal sider11
StatusUdgivet - dec. 2023


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