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Defining optimal dosing of ciprofloxacin in patients with septic shock

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BACKGROUND: Patients with septic shock may undergo extensive physiological alterations that can alter antibiotic pharmacokinetics.

OBJECTIVES: To describe the population pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin in septic shock and to define recommendations for effective ciprofloxacin dosing in these patients.

METHODS: Adult patients with septic shock treated with ciprofloxacin were eligible for inclusion. Concentrations were measured by HPLC-MS/MS. Population pharmacokinetic modelling was performed with Monte Carlo simulations then used to define dosing regimens that optimize the PTA of an AUC/MIC ratio >125 for different MICs and fractional target attainment (FTA) of empirical and targeted therapy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

RESULTS: We included 48 patients with median Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II of 49 and 90 day mortality of 33%. Ciprofloxacin pharmacokinetics was best described by a two-compartment linear model including CLCR and body weight as covariates on CL and central volume respectively. With a dose of 400 mg q8h and CLCR of 80 mL/min, >95% PTA was achieved for bacteria with MICs ≤0.25 mg/L. For empirical treatment of P. aeruginosa, 600 mg q8h only reached a maximum of 68% FTA. For directed therapy against P. aeruginosa, a dose of 600 mg q8h was needed to achieve sufficient AUC/MIC ratios.

CONCLUSIONS: In patients with septic shock, standard ciprofloxacin dosing achieved concentrations to successfully treat bacteria with MICs ≤0.25 mg/L and then only in patients with normal or reduced CLCR. To cover pathogens with higher MICs or in patients with augmented renal CL, doses may have to be increased.

TidsskriftThe Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy
Udgave nummer6
Sider (fra-til)1662-1669
Antal sider8
StatusUdgivet - 1 jun. 2019

Bibliografisk note

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

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