BACKGROUND: Dapagliflozin reduces kidney failure risk in patients with CKD but can result in a reversible acute reduction in eGFR upon treatment initiation. Determinants of this eGFR reduction and its associations with efficacy and safety outcomes are unknown.
METHODS: The DAPA-CKD trial randomized 4304 adults with CKD and albuminuria to once-daily dapagliflozin 10 mg or placebo, added to standard care. We prespecified an analysis comparing the effects of dapagliflozin among patients who experienced relative reductions in eGFR (>10% or >0%-10%) or an increase in eGFR from baseline to 2 weeks and assessed long-term efficacy and safety thereafter.
RESULTS: A total of 4157 (96.6%) patients had eGFR data available at baseline and at 2 weeks. In the dapagliflozin and placebo groups, 1026 (49.4%) and 494 (23.7%), respectively, experienced an acute reduction in eGFR >10%. Among patients receiving dapagliflozin, those with an acute reduction in eGFR >10% experienced a long-term eGFR decline of -1.58 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year compared with -2.44 and -2.48 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year among those experiencing a less pronounced reduction or increase in eGFR, respectively (P-interaction=0.05). In the placebo group, long-term eGFR decline was -3.27, -3.84, and -3.77 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year for acute eGFR reduction subgroups of >10%, >0%-10%, or increase in eGFR (P-interaction=0.48). Rates of serious adverse events and adverse events of special interest in patients randomized to dapagliflozin were unrelated to the acute eGFR change.
CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with CKD and albuminuria treated with dapagliflozin, an acute reduction in eGFR (from baseline to 2 weeks) is not associated with higher rates of CKD progression.Clinical Trial registration number: A Study to Evaluate the Effect of Dapagliflozin on Renal Outcomes and Cardiovascular Mortality in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (Dapa-CKD) NCT03036150.