Characterization of soluble folate receptors (folate binding proteins) in humans. Biological roles and clinical potentials in infection and malignancy

32 Citationer (Scopus)

Abstract

This review surveys soluble Folate Receptors (FOLRs) in humans. FOLR1 and FOLR2 are equipped with cellular glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors. FOLR1 is secreted from epithelia with or without a micelle-encapsulated GPI-anchor into milk and other body fluids/secretions, e.g. semen where its interaction with spermatozoa indicates a role in male fertility. FOLR1 and FOLR2 serve as serum biomarkers of various diseases. FOLR3 possesses no GPI-anchor and originates from secretory granules of neutrophil granulocytes; its concentration in serum correlates to the FOLR3 content in leukocytes and rises with increased leukocyte counts (infection, malignancy and pregnancy). FOLR3 exerts anti-microbial and anti-tumor effects by depriving bacteria and tumor cells of natural folates. Megalin receptors mediate reabsorption of ultrafiltered folate-bound FOLR into cells of proximal kidney tubules and of folate-bound FOLR uptake in growing embryos. Megalin receptors overexpressed in malignant tumors could be suitable therapeutic targets for folate-conjugated cytotoxic agents utilizing soluble FOLRs as vectors.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
Artikelnummer140466
TidsskriftBiochimica et biophysica acta. Proteins and proteomics
Vol/bind1868
Udgave nummer10
Sider (fra-til)140466
ISSN1570-9639
DOI
StatusUdgivet - okt. 2020

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